Bio: Achintya Saha is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Pharmacophore & Quantitative structure–activity relationship. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 136 publications receiving 1587 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The QSAR models developed here can be utilised for the antioxidant activity prediction of a new series of molecules, indicating the predictivity and robustness, respectively, of the developed models.
Abstract: In the present work, quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models have been built for a wide variety of antioxidant phenolic compounds obtained from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, with their Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical (ABTS√+) assay methods. Non-linear models obtained using genetic partial least-squares technique were acceptable both in terms of internal and external predictivity. Validation of developed models using metrics and randomisation technique yielded results indicating the predictivity and robustness, respectively, of the developed models. The models signify that the presence of ketonic oxygen within the molecular structure favours their antioxidant activity. In addition, the number of hydroxyl groups, extent of branching, degree of methoxylation and the number of methyl and methylene substituents also dictate the antioxidant activity of...
TL;DR: RA exhibited a concentration-dependent anti-apoptotic effect against CdCl2 in isolated mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells and can potentially be applied as a therapeutic agent to treat Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity in future.
Abstract: The present investigation was executed to reveal the protective mechanism of rosmarinic acid (RA) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. RA exhibited a concentration-dependent anti-apoptotic effect against CdCl2 in isolated mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells. Cd treatment significantly (p < 0.01) imparted oxidative stress to the renal cells via excessive ROS production, triggering NO level, NADPH oxidase activation, and impairment of cellular redox defense system. Cd-mediated oxidative stress significantly (p < 0.01) endorsed apoptosis to the murine kidney cells by triggering NF-κB/PKC-δ/TNFR2 activation. In addition, CdCl2 induced renal fibrosis by triggering TGF-β1/SMAD3/α-SMA/collagen signaling within renal cells. On the other hand, RA significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) attenuated Cd-provoked oxidative stress and associated pathological signal transduction in murine renal cells. RA treatment also could significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) reciprocate Cd-mediated pathological changes in blood and urine parameters in mice. In addition, histological data supported the pharmacological findings. In silico chemometric analyses predicted the possible interactions between RA and different signal proteins and anticipated drug-likeness characteristics of RA. Hence, RA can potentially be applied as a therapeutic agent to treat Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity in future.
TL;DR: Results would suggest a possibility of protocatechuic acid to be a new therapeutic agent for DC in future, and in silico ADME study predicted that protocatechinic acid would support the drug-likeness character.
Abstract: Persistent hyperglycemia, impairment of redox status and establishment of inflammatory pathophysiology integrally play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of protocatechuic acid isolated from the Sansevieria roxburghiana rhizomes against DC employing rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by high fat diet + a low-single dose of streptozotocin, (35 mg/kg, i.p.). T2D rats exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high fasting blood glucose level. Alteration in serum lipid profile (p < 0.01) and increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01) and creatine kinase (p < 0.01) in the sera of T2D rats revealed the occurrence of hyperlipidemia and diabetic pathophysiology. A significantly (p < 0.01) high levels of serum C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory mediators revealed the establishment of inflammatory occurrence in T2D rats. Besides, significantly high levels of troponins in the sera revealed the establishment of cardiac dysfunction in T2D rats. However, protocatechuic acid (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment could significantly reverse the changes in serum biochemical parameters related to cardiac dysfunctions. Molecular mechanism studies demonstrated impairment of signaling cascade, IRS1/PI3K/Akt/AMPK/p 38/GLUT4, in glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle of T2D rats. Significant (p < 0.01) activation of polyol pathway, enhanced production of AGEs, oxidative stress and up-regulation of inflammatory signaling cascades (PKC/NF-κB/PARP) were observed in the myocardial tissue of T2D rats. However, protocatechuic acid (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) stimulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle, regulated glycemic and lipid status, reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the myocardial physiology in T2D rats near to normalcy. Histological assessments were also in agreement with the above findings. In silico molecular docking study again supported the interactions of protocatechuic acid with different signaling molecules, PI3K, IRS, Akt, AMPK PKC, NF-κB and PARP, involved in glucose utilization and inflammatory pathophysiology. In silico ADME study predicted that protocatechuic acid would support the drug-likeness character. Combining all, results would suggest a possibility of protocatechuic acid to be a new therapeutic agent for DC in future.
TL;DR: Dual MMP-2/HDAC-8 inhibitors designed by pharmacophore mapping and molecular docking approaches have considerable anti-migratory and anti-invasive properties and may help to obtain some useful dual inhibitors.
Abstract: Recent analyses have highlighted the promotion of cancer migration and invasion, mediated through HDAC via MMP-2 and MMP-9. Since both class 1 HDACs and MMP-2/9 are involved in the migration and invasion of cancer, an attempt has been taken to design dual MMP-2/HDAC-8 inhibitors by pharmacophore mapping and molecular docking approaches. The designed molecules were synthesized and showed a range of inhibitory activity against different MMP subtypes. Most of these designed compounds were selective towards MMP-2 but less potent against anti-targets like MMP-8, -12, etc. The highly active MMP-2 inhibitors were also found to be active towards HDAC-8 but less potent against other class 1 HDACs (HDAC-1 and -2). Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the designed compounds may be acting through a distinct mechanism of action in the ‘acetate ion channel’ of HDAC-8. Some potent dual MMP-2/HDAC-8 inhibitors were further explored for in vitro cellular assays against human lung carcinoma cell line A549. These analyses revealed that some of these dual inhibitors have considerable anti-migratory and anti-invasive properties. The work may help to obtain some useful dual inhibitors.
TL;DR: Arylsulfonamides have been highlighted as potential and selective MMP-2 inhibitors through structure-activity relationships study and it may be postulated that sulfonamide moiety may provide better direction to the associated aryl group to accommodate the deep hydrophobic S1' pocket.
Abstract: Uncontrolled regulation of specific metalloenzymes plays important roles in several diseases like tumor metastasis and inflammation. Therefore, selective metalloenzyme inhibition may be a potential target for drug design and development. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) opened up a new horizon as the possible treatment of arthritis, cancer, and emphysema. However, due to adverse effects and poor pharmacokinetics, first generation MMPIs failed in clinical trials. Therefore, development of potential and selective MMPIs is still in demand. Moreover, the flexibility of the enzyme S1' pocket is variable in length and shape making the designing approach more challenging. In this article, arylsulfonamides have been highlighted as potential and selective MMP-2 inhibitors through structure-activity relationships study. It may be postulated that sulfonamide moiety may provide better direction to the associated aryl group to accommodate the deep hydrophobic S1' pocket. Tetrahedral geometry of the sulfonyl function may be favorable than planar carboxyl function regarding the interaction between the aryl group and S1' pocket. Hydroxamates may impart higher inhibition than corresponding carboxylates due to additional hydrogen bonding. Moreover, MMP-2 selectivity is not only dependent on zinc binders but also on the aryl functions directed towards S1 and S2' pockets. Therefore, this review may help in designing potential and selective MMP-2 inhibitors.
01 Jan 1979
01 Jan 2016
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TL;DR: The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs is an encyclopedia for the Chemist, Pharmacist, Physician and Allied Professions and thumb-indexed, 8 dollars.
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TL;DR: This book succeeds Review of Medical Pharmacology, by Meyers, Jawetz, and Goldfien, and deals with relevant information regarding the clinical use of drugs on the various battlefields.
Abstract: This book succeeds Review of Medical Pharmacology , by Meyers, Jawetz, and Goldfien. Edited by B. G. Katzung, some of the important areas covered include drug receptors and pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics of absorption and biotransformation of drugs, autonomic pharmacology of cholinergic and adrenergic receptor stimulants and antagonists, antihypertensive agents, cardiac glycosides and other agents used in the treatment of congestive heart failure, therapeutic drugs for cardiac arrhythmias, diuretics, pharmacology of the CNS drugs such as anticonvulsants and anesthetics, antidepressants, narcotic analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, endocrine pharmacology, antimicrobial and antimycobacterial drugs, antiprotozoal and antihelmintic drugs, cancer chemotherapy, and drugs and the immune system. Written by several prominent researchers and scientists, each chapter begins with a section on the basic pharmacology, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the agents under discussion. This is followed by a section on clinical pharmacology, which deals with relevant information regarding the clinical use of drugs on the various