Royal Society of Chemistry
About: RSC Advances is an academic journal published by Royal Society of Chemistry. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Medicine & Catalysis. It has an ISSN identifier of 2046-2069. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 69531 publications have been published receiving 1430317 citations. The journal is also known as: RSC Adv..
TL;DR: The mechanism of action of the natural antioxidant compounds and assays and their reaction mechanisms can help in evaluating the antioxidant activity of various antioxidant compounds as well as in the development of novel antioxidants.
Abstract: The normal biochemical reactions in our body, increased exposure to the environment, and higher levels of dietary xenobiotic's result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The ROS and RNS create oxidative stress in different pathophysiological conditions. The reported chemical evidence suggests that dietary antioxidants help in disease prevention. The antioxidant compounds react in one-electron reactions with free radicals in vivo/in vitro and prevent oxidative damage. Therefore, it is very important to understand the reaction mechanism of antioxidants with the free radicals. This review elaborates the mechanism of action of the natural antioxidant compounds and assays for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities. The reaction mechanisms of the antioxidant assays are briefly discussed (165 references). Practical applications: understanding the reaction mechanisms can help in evaluating the antioxidant activity of various antioxidant compounds as well as in the development of novel antioxidants.
TL;DR: The bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of AgNPs is found to be size and dose-dependent as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of silver nanoparticles against four bacterial strains.
Abstract: A systematic and detailed study for size-specific antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using a co-reduction approach is presented here. Nucleation and growth kinetics during the synthesis process was precisely controlled and AgNPs of average size 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 63, 85, and 100 nm were synthesized with good yield and monodispersity. We found the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of AgNPs to be size and dose-dependent as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of silver nanoparticles against four bacterial strains. Out of the tested strains, Escherichia coli MTCC 443 and Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5201 were found to be the most and least sensitive strains regardless of AgNP size. For AgNPs with less than 10 nm size, the antibacterial efficacy was significantly enhanced as revealed through delayed bacterial growth kinetics, corresponding MIC/MBC values and disk diffusion tests. AgNPs of the smallest size, i.e., 5 nm demonstrated the best results and mediated the fastest bactericidal activity against all the tested strains compared to AgNPs having 7 nm and 10 nm sizes at similar bacterial concentrations. TEM analysis of AgNP treated bacterial cells showed the presence of AgNPs on the cell membrane, and AgNPs internalized within the cells.
TL;DR: In this paper, different types of water treatment and recycling techniques have been discussed in terms of their basic principles, applications, costs, maintenance and suitability, and a brief guideline for the selection of the appropriate technologies for specific applications has been evaluated.
Abstract: The global population is increasing and because of this, the world may experience great fresh water scarcity. Our water resources are limited and, hence, water treatment and recycling methods are the only alternatives for getting fresh water in the coming decades. Therefore, there is a great need for the development of a suitable, inexpensive and rapid wastewater treatment techniques and reuse or conservation methods in the present century. The different types of water treatment and recycling techniques have been discussed in terms of their basic principles, applications, costs, maintenance and suitability. Additionally, a systematic approach to water treatment and recycling involving their understanding, evaluation and selection parameters has been presented. A brief guideline for the selection of the appropriate technologies for specific applications has been evaluated. This review adds to the global discussions on water scarcity solutions.
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed overview of dye pollution, dye classification and dye decolourization/degradation strategies is presented, focusing on the mechanisms involved in comparatively well understood TiO2 photocatalysts.
Abstract: The total annual production of synthetic dye is more than 7 × 105 tons. Annually, through only textile waste effluents, around one thousand tons of non-biodegradable textile dyes are discharged into natural streams and water bodies. Therefore, with growing environmental concerns and environmental awareness there is a need for the removal of dyes from local and industrial water effluents with a cost effective technology. In general, these dyes have been found to be resistant to biological as well as physical treatment technologies. In this regard, heterogeneous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), involving photo-catalyzed degradation of dyes using semiconductor nanoparticles is considered as an efficient cure for dye pollution. In the last two decades TiO2 has received considerable interest because of its high potential as a photocatalyst to degrade a wide range of organic material including dyes. This review starts with (i) a brief overview on dye pollution, dye classification and dye decolourization/degradation strategies; (ii) focuses on the mechanisms involved in comparatively well understood TiO2 photocatalysts and (iii) discusses recent advancements to enhance TiO2 photocatalytic efficiency by (a) doping with metals, non-metals, transition metals, noble metals and lanthanide ions, (b) structural modifications of TiO2 and (c) immobilization of TiO2 by using various supports to make it a flexible and cost-effective commercial dye treatment technology.
TL;DR: In this paper, the chemistry, types, and synthesis of polyurethanes (PUs) are discussed, with a specific emphasis on their recyclability and recoverability, and information is provided on the environmental friendliness of the PU.
Abstract: Polyurethanes (PUs) are a class of versatile materials with great potential for use in different applications, especially based on their structure–property relationships. Their specific mechanical, physical, biological, and chemical properties are attracting significant research attention to tailoring PUs for use in different applications. Enhancement of the properties and performance of PU-based materials may be achieved through changes to the production process or the raw materials used in their fabrication or via the use of advanced characterization techniques. Clearly, modification of the raw materials and production process through proper methods can produce PUs that are suitable for varied specific applications. The present study aims to shed light on the chemistry, types, and synthesis of different kinds of PUs. Some of the important research studies relating to PUs, including their synthesis method, characterization techniques, and research findings, are comprehensively discussed. Herein, recent advances in new types of PUs and their synthesis for various applications are also presented. Furthermore, information is provided on the environmental friendliness of the PUs, with a specific emphasis on their recyclability and recoverability.