Bio: Cheng-Lin Liu is an academic researcher from Chinese Academy of Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topics: Handwriting recognition & Feature extraction. The author has an hindex of 58, co-authored 348 publications receiving 16804 citations. Previous affiliations of Cheng-Lin Liu include Hitachi & Center for Excellence in Education.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••20 Jun 2011
TL;DR: This work introduces a novel descriptor based on motion boundary histograms, which is robust to camera motion and consistently outperforms other state-of-the-art descriptors, in particular in uncontrolled realistic videos.
Abstract: Feature trajectories have shown to be efficient for representing videos. Typically, they are extracted using the KLT tracker or matching SIFT descriptors between frames. However, the quality as well as quantity of these trajectories is often not sufficient. Inspired by the recent success of dense sampling in image classification, we propose an approach to describe videos by dense trajectories. We sample dense points from each frame and track them based on displacement information from a dense optical flow field. Given a state-of-the-art optical flow algorithm, our trajectories are robust to fast irregular motions as well as shot boundaries. Additionally, dense trajectories cover the motion information in videos well. We, also, investigate how to design descriptors to encode the trajectory information. We introduce a novel descriptor based on motion boundary histograms, which is robust to camera motion. This descriptor consistently outperforms other state-of-the-art descriptors, in particular in uncontrolled realistic videos. We evaluate our video description in the context of action classification with a bag-of-features approach. Experimental results show a significant improvement over the state of the art on four datasets of varying difficulty, i.e. KTH, YouTube, Hollywood2 and UCF sports.
TL;DR: The MBH descriptor shows to consistently outperform other state-of-the-art descriptors, in particular on real-world videos that contain a significant amount of camera motion.
Abstract: This paper introduces a video representation based on dense trajectories and motion boundary descriptors. Trajectories capture the local motion information of the video. A dense representation guarantees a good coverage of foreground motion as well as of the surrounding context. A state-of-the-art optical flow algorithm enables a robust and efficient extraction of dense trajectories. As descriptors we extract features aligned with the trajectories to characterize shape (point coordinates), appearance (histograms of oriented gradients) and motion (histograms of optical flow). Additionally, we introduce a descriptor based on motion boundary histograms (MBH) which rely on differential optical flow. The MBH descriptor shows to consistently outperform other state-of-the-art descriptors, in particular on real-world videos that contain a significant amount of camera motion. We evaluate our video representation in the context of action classification on nine datasets, namely KTH, YouTube, Hollywood2, UCF sports, IXMAS, UIUC, Olympic Sports, UCF50 and HMDB51. On all datasets our approach outperforms current state-of-the-art results.
TL;DR: Comparative experimental results indicate that the proposed HDNN significantly outperforms the traditional DNN on vehicle detection, by dividing the maps of the last convolutional layer and the max-pooling layer of DNN into multiple blocks of variable receptive field sizes or max- pooling field sizes to enable the HDNN to extract variable-scale features.
Abstract: Detecting small objects such as vehicles in satellite images is a difficult problem. Many features (such as histogram of oriented gradient, local binary pattern, scale-invariant featuretransform, etc.) have been used to improve the performance of object detection, but mostly in simple environments such as those on roads. Kembhavi et al. proposed that no satisfactory accuracy has been achieved in complex environments such as the City of San Francisco. Deep convolutional neural networks (DNNs) can learn rich features from the training data automatically and has achieved state-of-the-art performance in many image classification databases. Though the DNN has shown robustness to distortion, it only extracts features of the same scale, and hence is insufficient to tolerate large-scale variance of object. In this letter, we present a hybrid DNN (HDNN), by dividing the maps of the last convolutional layer and the max-pooling layer of DNN into multiple blocks of variable receptive field sizes or max-pooling field sizes, to enable the HDNN to extract variable-scale features. Comparative experimental results indicate that our proposed HDNN significantly outperforms the traditional DNN on vehicle detection.
TL;DR: The results of handwritten digit recognition on well-known image databases using state-of-the-art feature extraction and classification techniques are competitive to the best ones previously reported on the same databases.
Abstract: This paper presents the results of handwritten digit recognition on well-known image databases using state-of-the-art feature extraction and classification techniques. The tested databases are CENPARMI, CEDAR, and MNIST. On the test data set of each database, 80 recognition accuracies are given by combining eight classifiers with ten feature vectors. The features include chaincode feature, gradient feature, profile structure feature, and peripheral direction contributivity. The gradient feature is extracted from either binary image or gray-scale image. The classifiers include the k-nearest neighbor classifier, three neural classifiers, a learning vector quantization classifier, a discriminative learning quadratic discriminant function (DLQDF) classifier, and two support vector classifiers (SVCs). All the classifiers and feature vectors give high recognition accuracies. Relatively, the chaincode feature and the gradient feature show advantage over other features, and the profile structure feature shows efficiency as a complementary feature. The SVC with RBF kernel (SVC-rbf) gives the highest accuracy in most cases but is extremely expensive in storage and computation. Among the non-SV classifiers, the polynomial classifier and DLQDF give the highest accuracies. The results of non-SV classifiers are competitive to the best ones previously reported on the same databases.
18 Sep 2011
TL;DR: A pair of online and offline Chinese handwriting databases, containing samples of isolated characters and handwritten texts, are introduced, which can be used for the research of various handwritten document analysis tasks.
Abstract: This paper introduces a pair of online and offline Chinese handwriting databases, containing samples of isolated characters and handwritten texts. The samples were produced by 1,020 writers using Anoto pen on papers for obtaining both online trajectory data and offline images. Both the online samples and offline samples are divided into six datasets, three for isolated characters (DB1.0-C1.2) and three for handwritten texts (DB2.0-C2.2). The (either online or offline) datasets of isolated characters contain about 3.9 million samples of 7,356 classes (7,185 Chinese characters and 171 symbols), and the datasets of handwritten texts contain about 5,090 pages and 1.35 million character samples. Each dataset is segmented and annotated at character level, and is partitioned into standard training and test subsets. The online and offline databases can be used for the research of various handwritten document analysis tasks.
••07 Jun 2015
TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).
Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.
TL;DR: This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium, review deep supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.
Abstract: In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.