TL;DR: Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production and the Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is essential for humans and animals but is not considered to be essential for higher plants. Although researchers have found increases in vegetative growth due to fertiliser Se, there has been no definitive evidence to date of increased reproductive capacity, in terms of seed production and seed viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate seed production and growth responses to a low dose of Se (as sodium selenite, added to solution culture) compared to very low-Se controls in fast-cycling Brassica rapa L. Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production. The Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production. This study provides additional evidence for a beneficial role for Se in higher plants.
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors defined the sources of heavy metals and metalloids in Soils and derived methods for the determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in soil.
Abstract: Preface.- Contributors.- List of Abbreviations.- Section 1: Basic Principles: Introduction.-Sources of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Chemistry of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Effects of Heavy Metals and Metalloids on Soil Organisms.- Soil-Plant Relationships of Heavy Metals and Metalloids.- Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Micronutrients for Plants and Animals.-Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soils.- Section 2: Key Heavy Metals And Metalloids: Arsenic.- Cadmium.- Chromium and Nickel.- Cobalt and Manganese.- Copper.-Lead.- Mercury.- Selenium.- Zinc.- Section 3: Other Heavy Metals And Metalloids Of Potential Environmental Significance: Antimony.- Barium.- Gold.- Molybdenum.- Silver.- Thallium.- Tin.- Tungsten.- Uranium.- Vanadium.- Glossary of Specialized Terms.- Index.
TL;DR: Key developments in the current understanding of Se in higher plants are reviewed and recent advances in the genetic engineering of Se metabolism are discussed, particularly for biofortification and phytoremediation of Se-contaminated environments.
TL;DR: The present study suggests that selenium can play a protective role during HT stress by enhancing the antioxidant defense system.
TL;DR: This review traces a plausible link among Se levels, sources, speciation, bioavailability, and effect of soil chemical properties on selenium bioavailability/speciation in soil; role of different protein transporters in soil-root-shoot transfer of Se; and the potential role of Se in different human disorders/diseases.
TL;DR: In this article, the potential for increasing grain Se concentration in a high-yielding UK wheat crop using fertilisers was determined under standard field conditions in two consecutive years at up to 10 sites.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and livestock. In the UK, human Se intake and status has declined since the 1980s. This is primarily due to the increased use of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in UK soils which are naturally low in Se. The aim of this study was to determine the potential for increasing grain Se concentration in a high-yielding UK wheat crop using fertilisers. The crop response of winter-wheat to Se fertilisation was determined under standard field conditions in two consecutive years at up to 10 sites. Selenium fertilisers were applied as high-volume drenches of sodium selenate solution, or as granular Se-containing products. Yield and harvest index were unaffected by Se fertilisation. Under all treatments, grain Se concentration increased by 16–26 ng Se g−1 fresh weight (FW) per gram Se ha−1 applied. An application of 10 g Se ha−1 would thereby increase the Se concentration of most UK wheat grain 10-fold from current ambient levels and agronomic biofortification of UK-grown wheat is feasible. Total recovery (grain and straw) of applied Se was 20–35%. The fate of Se in the food-chain and in the soil must be determined in order to optimize the efficiency of this process.