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JournalISSN: 0032-079X

Plant and Soil 

About: Plant and Soil is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Soil water & Rhizosphere. It has an ISSN identifier of 0032-079X. Over the lifetime, 16945 publication(s) have been published receiving 765708 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
L. S. Bates1, R. P. Waldren1, I. D. Teare1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Proline, which increases proportionately faster than other amino acids in plants under water stress, has been suggested as an evaluating parameter for irrigation scheduling and for selecting drought-resistant varieties. The necessity to analyze numerous samples from multiple replications of field grown materials prompted the development of a simple, rapid colorimetric determination of proline. The method detected proline in the 0.1 to 36.0 μmoles/g range of fresh weight leaf material.

12,637 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The relationship between soil structure and the ability of soil to stabilize soil organic matter (SOM) is a key element in soil C dynamics that has either been overlooked or treated in a cursory fashion when developing SOM models. The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge of SOM dynamics within the framework of a newly proposed soil C saturation concept. Initially, we distinguish SOM that is protected against decomposition by various mechanisms from that which is not protected from decomposition. Methods of quantification and characteristics of three SOM pools defined as protected are discussed. Soil organic matter can be: (1) physically stabilized, or protected from decomposition, through microaggregation, or (2) intimate association with silt and clay particles, and (3) can be biochemically stabilized through the formation of recalcitrant SOM compounds. In addition to behavior of each SOM pool, we discuss implications of changes in land management on processes by which SOM compounds undergo protection and release. The characteristics and responses to changes in land use or land management are described for the light fraction (LF) and particulate organic matter (POM). We defined the LF and POM not occluded within microaggregates (53–250 μm sized aggregates as unprotected. Our conclusions are illustrated in a new conceptual SOM model that differs from most SOM models in that the model state variables are measurable SOM pools. We suggest that physicochemical characteristics inherent to soils define the maximum protective capacity of these pools, which limits increases in SOM (i.e. C sequestration) with increased organic residue inputs.

2,815 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J. Kevin Vessey1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This review focuses on the known, the putative, and the speculative modes-of-action of PGPR, which include fixing N2, increasing the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, positively influencing root growth and morphology, and promoting other beneficial plant–microbe symbioses.
Abstract: Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants, but which may grow in, on, or around plant tissues, stimulate plant growth by a plethora of mechanisms. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The search for PGPR and investigation of their modes of action are increasing at a rapid pace as efforts are made to exploit them commercially as biofertilizers. After an initial clarification of the term biofertilizers and the nature of associations between PGPR and plants (i.e., endophytic versus rhizospheric), this review focuses on the known, the putative, and the speculative modes-of-action of PGPR. These modes of action include fixing N2, increasing the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, positively influencing root growth and morphology, and promoting other beneficial plant–microbe symbioses. The combination of these modes of actions in PGPR is also addressed, as well as the challenges facing the more widespread utilization of PGPR as biofertilizers.

2,670 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
David L. Jones1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Organic acids, such as malate, citrate and oxalate, have been proposed to be involved in many processes operating in the rhizosphere, including nutrient acquisition and metal detoxification, alleviation of anaerobic stress in roots, mineral weathering and pathogen attraction. A full assessment of their role in these processes, however, cannot be determined unless the exact mechanisms of plant organic acid release and the fate of these compounds in the soil are more fully understood. This review therefore includes information on organic acid levels in plants (concentrations, compartmentalisation, spatial aspects, synthesis), plant efflux (passive versus active transport, theoretical versus experimental considerations), soil reactions (soil solution concentrations, sorption) and microbial considerations (mineralization). In summary, the release of organic acids from roots can operate by multiple mechanisms in response to a number of well-defined environmental stresses (e.g., Al, P and Fe stress, anoxia): These responses, however, are highly stress- and plant-species specific. In addition, this review indicates that the sorption of organic acids to the mineral phase and mineralisation by the soil's microbial biomass are critical to determining the effectiveness of organic acids in most rhizosphere processes.

2,188 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Philippe Hinsinger1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In most soils, inorganic phosphorus occurs at fairly low concentrations in the soil solution whilst a large proportion of it is more or less strongly held by diverse soil minerals. Phosphate ions can indeed be adsorbed onto positively charged minerals such as Fe and Al oxides. Phosphate (P) ions can also form a range of minerals in combination with metals such as Ca, Fe and Al. These adsorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution equilibria control the concentration of P in the soil solution and, thereby, both its chemical mobility and bioavailability. Apart from the concentration of P ions, the major factors that determine those equilibria as well as the speciation of soil P are (i) the pH, (ii) the concentrations of anions that compete with P ions for ligand exchange reactions and (iii) the concentrations of metals (Ca, Fe and Al) that can coprecipitate with P ions. The chemical conditions of the rhizosphere are known to considerably differ from those of the bulk soil, as a consequence of a range of processes that are induced either directly by the activity of plant roots or by the activity of rhizosphere microflora. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of those chemical processes that are directly induced by plant roots and which can affect the concentration of P in the soil solution and, ultimately, the bioavailability of soil inorganic P to plants. Amongst these, the uptake activity of plant roots should be taken into account in the first place. A second group of activities which is of major concern with respect to P bioavailability are those processes that can affect soil pH, such as proton/bicarbonate release (anion/cation balance) and gaseous (O2/CO2) exchanges. Thirdly, the release of root exudates such as organic ligands is another activity of the root that can alter the concentration of P in the soil solution. These various processes and their relative contributions to the changes in the bioavailability of soil inorganic P that can occur in the rhizosphere can considerably vary with (i) plant species, (ii) plant nutritional status and (iii) ambient soil conditions, as will be stressed in this paper. Their possible implications for the understanding and management of P nutrition of plants will be briefly addressed and discussed.

1,862 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2021496
2020425
2019433
2018394
2017437
2016362