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Louise M. Nelson

Bio: Louise M. Nelson is an academic researcher from University of British Columbia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Pseudomonas fluorescens & Pratylenchus penetrans. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 34 publications receiving 2079 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is growing scientific evidence supporting the use of biostimulants as agricultural inputs on diverse plant species, such as increased root growth, enhanced nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance.
Abstract: Plant biostimulants are diverse substances and microorganisms used to enhance plant growth. The global market for biostimulants is projected to increase 12 % per year and reach over $2,200 million by 2018. Despite the growing use of biostimulants in agriculture, many in the scientific community consider biostimulants to be lacking peer-reviewed scientific evaluation. This article describes the emerging definitions of biostimulants and reviews the literature on five categories of biostimulants: i. microbial inoculants, ii. humic acids, iii. fulvic acids, iv. protein hydrolysates and amino acids, and v. seaweed extracts. The large number of publications cited for each category of biostimulants demonstrates that there is growing scientific evidence supporting the use of biostimulants as agricultural inputs on diverse plant species. The cited literature also reveals some commonalities in plant responses to different biostimulants, such as increased root growth, enhanced nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance.

1,305 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: G20-18 and the mutants CNT1 and CNT2 may be useful for determination of the role of cytokinin production in plant growth promotion by PGPR, as well as for characterization in pure culture using immunoassay and thin layer chromatography.
Abstract: One of the proposed mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is through the production of plant growth regulators. Five plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains produced the cytokinin dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR) in pure culture. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18, a rifampicin-resistant mutant (RIF), and two TnphoA-derived mutants (CNT1, CNT2), with reduced capacity to synthesize cytokinins, was further characterized in pure culture using immunoassay and thin layer chromatography. G20-18 produced higher amounts of three cytokinins, isopentenyl adenosine (IPA), trans-zeatin ribose (ZR), and DHZR than the three mutants during stationary phase. IPA was the major metabolite produced, but the proportion of ZR and DHZR accumulated by CNT1 and CNT2 increased with time. No differences were observed between strain G20-18 and the mutants in the amounts of indole acetic acid synthesized, nor were gibberellins detected in supernatants of any of the strains. Addition of 10(-5) M adenine increased cytokinin production in 96- and 168-h cultures of strain G20-18 by approximately 67%. G20-18 and the mutants CNT1 and CNT2 may be useful for determination of the role of cytokinin production in plant growth promotion by PGPR.

422 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that selected endophytic bacterial strains have potential for control of seedling disease of rice and for plant growth promotion.
Abstract: Of 102 rhizoplane and endophytic bacteria isolated from rice roots and stems in California, 37% significantly (P 0.05) inhibited the growth in vitro of two pathogens, Achlya klebsiana and Pythium s...

145 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 to efficiently control P. syringae infection in Arabidopsis is identified, allowing maintenance of tissue integrity and ultimately biomass yield and demonstrates microbial cytokinin production as a novel microbe-based, hormone-mediated concept of biocontrol.
Abstract: Plant beneficial microbes mediate biocontrol of diseases by interfering with pathogens or via strengthening the host. Although phytohormones, including cytokinins, are known to regulate plant development and physiology as well as plant immunity, their production by microorganisms has not been considered as a biocontrol mechanism. Here we identify the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 to efficiently control P. syringae infection in Arabidopsis, allowing maintenance of tissue integrity and ultimately biomass yield. Microbial cytokinin production was identified as a key determinant for this biocontrol effect on the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen. While cytokinin-deficient loss-of-function mutants of G20-18 exhibit impaired biocontrol, functional complementation with cytokinin biosynthetic genes restores cytokinin-mediated biocontrol, which is correlated with differential cytokinin levels in planta. Arabidopsis mutant analyses revealed the necessity of functional plant cytokinin perception and salicylic acid-dependent defence signalling for this biocontrol mechanism. These results demonstrate microbial cytokinin production as a novel microbe-based, hormone-mediated concept of biocontrol. This mechanism provides a basis to potentially develop novel, integrated plant protection strategies combining promotion of growth, a favourable physiological status and activation of fine-tuned direct defence and abiotic stress resilience.

126 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: This chapter reviews the structure and function of cytokinin in plant tissues and their production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and a role for microbially-produced cytokinins in plant growth and development is proposed.
Abstract: Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are organic substances that influence the physiology and development of plants at very low concentrations. Cytokinins are one of the five major groups of PGRs or phytohormones and regulate cytokinesis in plant cells. Soil microorganisms are capable of synthesizing PGRs such as cytokinins in pure culture, soil and in association with plant tissues. This chapter reviews the structure and function of cytokinins in plant tissues and their production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). A role for microbially-produced cytokinins in plant growth and development is proposed. Cytokinin production by PGPR is an innovative alternative to enhance plant growth and may be a sustainable approach to improve the yield and quality of agricultural crops. However further research is necessary to understand the principles underlying cytokinin production by rhizobacteria and to develop cytokinin-producing inoculants for practical application by growers.

90 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on the known, the putative, and the speculative modes-of-action of PGPR, which include fixing N2, increasing the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, positively influencing root growth and morphology, and promoting other beneficial plant–microbe symbioses.
Abstract: Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants, but which may grow in, on, or around plant tissues, stimulate plant growth by a plethora of mechanisms. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The search for PGPR and investigation of their modes of action are increasing at a rapid pace as efforts are made to exploit them commercially as biofertilizers. After an initial clarification of the term biofertilizers and the nature of associations between PGPR and plants (i.e., endophytic versus rhizospheric), this review focuses on the known, the putative, and the speculative modes-of-action of PGPR. These modes of action include fixing N2, increasing the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, positively influencing root growth and morphology, and promoting other beneficial plant–microbe symbioses. The combination of these modes of actions in PGPR is also addressed, as well as the challenges facing the more widespread utilization of PGPR as biofertilizers.

2,982 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Nov 2015-Nature
TL;DR: It is argued that the available evidence does not support the formation of large-molecular-size and persistent ‘humic substances’ in soils, and instead soil organic matter is a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds.
Abstract: Instead of containing stable and chemically unique ‘humic substances’, as has been widely accepted, soil organic matter is a mixture of progressively decomposing organic compounds; this has broad implications for soil science and its applications. The exchange of nutrients, energy and carbon between soil organic matter, the soil environment, aquatic systems and the atmosphere is important for agricultural productivity, water quality and climate. Long-standing theory suggests that soil organic matter is composed of inherently stable and chemically unique compounds. Here we argue that the available evidence does not support the formation of large-molecular-size and persistent ‘humic substances’ in soils. Instead, soil organic matter is a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds. We discuss implications of this view of the nature of soil organic matter for aquatic health, soil carbon–climate interactions and land management. Soil organic matter contains a large portion of the world's carbon and plays an important role in maintaining productive soils and water quality. Nevertheless, a consensus on the nature of soil organic matter is lacking. Johannes Lehmann and Markus Kleber argue that soil organic matter should no longer be seen as large and persistent, chemically unique substances, but as a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds.

2,206 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Oct 2012
TL;DR: It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies.
Abstract: The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise.

2,094 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The progress to date in using the rhizosphere bacteria in a variety of applications related to agricultural improvement along with their mechanism of action with special reference to plant growth-promoting traits are summarized and discussed in this review.
Abstract: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that can enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms like phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, biological nitrogen fixation, rhizosphere engineering, production of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC), quorum sensing (QS) signal interference and inhibition of biofilm formation, phytohormone production, exhibiting antifungal activity, production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), induction of systemic resistance, promoting beneficial plant-microbe symbioses, interference with pathogen toxin production etc. The potentiality of PGPR in agriculture is steadily increased as it offers an attractive way to replace the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other supplements. Growth promoting substances are likely to be produced in large quantities by these rhizosphere microorganisms that influence indirectly on the overall morphology of the plants. Recent progress in our understanding on the diversity of PGPR in the rhizosphere along with their colonization ability and mechanism of action should facilitate their application as a reliable component in the management of sustainable agricultural system. The progress to date in using the rhizosphere bacteria in a variety of applications related to agricultural improvement along with their mechanism of action with special reference to plant growth-promoting traits are summarized and discussed in this review.

1,941 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The heterotrophic plate count has come under increasing criticism because it is inefficient, at best, for enumerating viable bacteria present in marine and estuarine systems.

1,793 citations