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Patrick L. Hill

Bio: Patrick L. Hill is an academic researcher from Washington University in St. Louis. The author has contributed to research in topics: Personality & Big Five personality traits. The author has an hindex of 41, co-authored 177 publications receiving 5660 citations. Previous affiliations of Patrick L. Hill include University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign & University of Notre Dame.


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TL;DR: Empirical studies identified 207 studies that had tracked changes in measures of personality traits during interventions, including true experiments and prepost change designs, and found that personality traits changed the most, and patients being treated for substance use changed the least.
Abstract: The current meta-analysis investigated the extent to which personality traits changed as a result of intervention, with the primary focus on clinical interventions. We identified 207 studies that had tracked changes in measures of personality traits during interventions, including true experiments and prepost change designs. Interventions were associated with marked changes in personality trait measures over an average time of 24 weeks (e.g., d = .37). Additional analyses showed that the increases replicated across experimental and nonexperimental designs, for nonclinical interventions, and persisted in longitudinal follow-ups of samples beyond the course of intervention. Emotional stability was the primary trait domain showing changes as a result of therapy, followed by extraversion. The type of therapy employed was not strongly associated with the amount of change in personality traits. Patients presenting with anxiety disorders changed the most, and patients being treated for substance use changed the least. The relevance of the results for theory and social policy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

584 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the relationship among purpose, hope, and life satisfaction among 153 adolescents, 237 emerging adults, and 416 adults (N = 806) and found that having identified a purpose in life was associated with greater life satisfaction at these three stages of life.
Abstract: Using the Revised Youth Purpose Survey (Bundick et al., 2006), the Trait Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), the present study examined the relationship among purpose, hope, and life satisfaction among 153 adolescents, 237 emerging adults, and 416 adults (N = 806). Results of this cross-sectional study revealed that having identified a purpose in life was associated with greater life satisfaction at these three stages of life. However, searching for a purpose was only associated with increased life satisfaction during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Additionally, aspects of hope mediated the relationship between purpose and life satisfaction at all three stages of life. Implications of these results for effectively fostering purpose are discussed.

472 citations

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TL;DR: This article reviews the conceptual standing of conscientiousness as a personality trait, past research focusing on the underlying dimensions ofcientiousness, the nomological network in which conscientiousness is embedded, and the diverse methods that have been used to assess dimensions of conscientiousity.
Abstract: Conscientiousness is a personality construct that is a core determinant of health, positive aging, and human capital. A large body of work has contributed to our understanding of this important aspect of personality, but there are multiple conceptual and methodological issues that complicate our understanding of conscientiousness. Toward this end, we review (a) the conceptual standing of conscientiousness as a personality trait, (b) past research focusing on the underlying dimensions of conscientiousness, (c) the nomological network in which conscientiousness is embedded, and (d) the diverse methods that have been used to assess dimensions of conscientiousness. We conclude with recommendations for improving our understanding of the construct of conscientiousness, methods of assessment, and etiological underpinnings of conscientiousness. We believe this article can serve an important role in the larger goal of better understanding conscientiousness and its core role in the health of our society.

348 citations

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TL;DR: Having a purpose in life appears to widely buffer against mortality risk across the adult years, using data from the longitudinal Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) sample.
Abstract: Having a purpose in life has been cited consistently as an indicator of healthy aging for several reasons, including its potential for reducing mortality risk. In the current study, we sought to extend previous findings by examining whether purpose in life promotes longevity across the adult years, using data from the longitudinal Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) sample. Proportional-hazards models demonstrated that purposeful individuals lived longer than their counterparts did during the 14 years after the baseline assessment, even when controlling for other markers of psychological and affective well-being. Moreover, these longevity benefits did not appear to be conditional on the participants' age, how long they lived during the follow-up period, or whether they had retired from the workforce. In other words, having a purpose in life appears to widely buffer against mortality risk across the adult years.

323 citations

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TL;DR: Results indicate that participants in the intervention condition increased in the trait of openness compared with a waitlist control group, one of the first to demonstrate that personality traits can change through nonpsychopharmocological interventions.
Abstract: The present study investigated whether an intervention aimed to increase cognitive ability in older adults also changes the personality trait of openness to experience. Older adults completed a 16-week program in inductive reasoning training supplemented by weekly crossword and Sudoku puzzles. Changes in openness to experience were modeled across four assessments over 30 weeks using latent growth curve models. Results indicate that participants in the intervention condition increased in the trait of openness compared with a waitlist control group. The study is one of the first to demonstrate that personality traits can change through nonpsychopharmocological interventions.

224 citations


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5,680 citations

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TL;DR: The theme of the volume is that it is human to have a long childhood which will leave a lifelong residue of emotional immaturity in man.
Abstract: Erik Eriksen is a remarkable individual. He has no college degrees yet is Professor of Human Development at Harvard University. He came to psychology via art, which explains why the reader will find him painting contexts and backgrounds rather than stating dull facts and concepts. He has been a training psychoanalyst for many years as well as a perceptive observer of cultural and social settings and their effect on growing up. This is not just a book on childhood. It is a panorama of our society. Anxiety in young children, apathy in American Indians, confusion in veterans of war, and arrogance in young Nazis are scrutinized under the psychoanalytic magnifying glass. The material is well written and devoid of technical jargon. The theme of the volume is that it is human to have a long childhood which will leave a lifelong residue of emotional immaturity in man. Primitive groups and

4,595 citations