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Vikas Goyal

Bio: Vikas Goyal is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Management Indore. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Opportunism & Performance management. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 5 publication(s) receiving 46 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Sandip Trada1, Vikas Goyal2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Mitigating channel members' opportunism is critical for supplier firms to maintain superior channel relationships and sustain relationship performance. Research in marketing channels suggests that supplier-channel member communication is vital for reducing information asymmetry and developing relational bonds in channel relationships. Building on that, in this research, we integrate information asymmetry and relationship-based views to articulate how communication, directly and indirectly, influences channel members' opportunism and curtail its ill effects on relationship performance. Based on the matched data from 239 supplier-distributor dyads, we find that communications (instrumental and social) have tripartite effects on channel outcomes, i.e., a) it directly reduces channel members' opportunism, b) weakens (negatively moderate) the positive effects of exchange hazards (antecedents) on opportunism and c) curtail the ill effects of opportunism on relationship performance. Additionally, we find that instrumental and social communications can have nuanced effects on channel members' opportunism. We provide newer insight into the role of communications in managing channel outcomes and present important theoretical and managerial implications.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a nuanced framework for evaluating a channel partner’s performance in distribution channel relationships. Given a channel partner’s task environment characteristics (high/low munificence, dynamism and complexity), the study examines which performance metrics (output, activity or capability) are most relevant for evaluating its performance levels effectively. Design/methodology/approach The study adopts self-administered cross-sectional survey-based research design. Matched data were collected from 252 channel partners – manager relationship dyads. The latent change score (LCS) model within SEM framework provides mean paired-differences of the relevance ratings for each metrics. This was used to assess the empirical validity of the hypothesized relationships. Findings The study demonstrates the importance of calibrating performance evaluation metrics to a channel partner’s task environment state, made possible by its holistic approach to performance evaluation. Based on an extensive analysis, it shows that no single metric is relevant within all environmental states; rather, it could be dysfunctional, a result that differs from vast majority of the literature. Research limitations/implications Investigates individual linkages between task environment dimensions and performance metrics to provide a fuller understanding of these relationships. Also provides a theoretical framework to support further research on the topic. Practical implications The study provides managerial guidelines (and extensive graphical analysis) for nuanced and dynamic evaluation of channel partners’ performance that can enable firms to identify and promote their most valuable channel partners and prevent the deterioration of others. Originality/value First one to develop and empirically validate a nuanced framework for evaluating performance of exchange partners that operate under diverse task environment states.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sandip Trada1, Vikas Goyal1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Opportunism has long-term negative consequences for channel relationships. The extant research has traditionally focused on economic forces in studying opportunism. However, social exchange theory stresses the role of social forces in shaping opportunistic behavior. In this study, we integrate transaction cost economics and justice theory to theorize and examine the impact of ‘perceived unfairness’ on distributor opportunism. We uncover the ‘dual’ effects of perceived unfairness on opportunism, i.e., 1) directly enhancing opportunism and 2) aggravating (positively moderating) the effects of economic forces on opportunism. Matched data on 247 supplier-distributor dyads in India provide empirical support for our theoretical model and research hypotheses. We find differential effects of the three dimensions of perceived unfairness (distributive, procedural, and interactional) on opportunism. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice and present avenues for future research.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Vikas Goyal1, Prashant Mishra2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: The authors developed the measurement scale by the three-stage protocol and established the scale’s reliability, factor structure and validity through the data collected from 252 firm-channel partner dyads across automobile firms in India.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for performance evaluation of channel partners in distribution relationships and develop a scale to measure the proposed dimensions of performance. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed framework is built on the theoretical foundations of salesforce control systems and organizational performance. The authors developed the measurement scale by the three-stage protocol and established the scale’s reliability, factor structure and validity through the data collected from 252 firm-channel partner dyads across automobile firms in India. Findings – The proposed framework highlights three distinct dimensions of channel partners’ performance, i.e. output performance, the financial/other objective results; activity performance, the activities, behavior and process-compliance levels; and capability performance, the resources and capabilities of channel partners. An 18-item measurement scale is developed to measure the three proposed dimensions of channel partners’ performance. Research limitations/implications – The proposed framework conceptualizes the three key dimensions of channel partners’ performance that can assist firms in exercising a focussed approach to performance management in distribution channel relationships and other inter-firm contexts. This study contributes to the legitimacy and further development of research in the area. Practical implications – The measurement scale provides valid and reliable items for a rigorous performance analyses of channel partners, both at the individual level as well as at the level of the distribution channel as a whole. These performance analyses have multiple applications, right from managing the day-to-day channel activities to steering the channel strategy. Originality/value – The paper presents a multidimensional conceptual framework for performance evaluation of channel partners and provides a suitable instrument for operationalizing future empirical research in the area.

5 citations


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Posted Content
Bohyeon Kang1, Rupinder Paul Jindal2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Opportunism is recognized as a key factor that can affect the quality of relationship between buyers and sellers. However, there is a relative lack of research in the antecedents of opportunism. This paper draws upon transaction cost economics and relationship marketing paradigms to propose a conceptual framework involving six potential antecedents. Data from 270 franchisees in a Korea based franchise system is used to test the hypotheses. Results from a structural equation model show that the conflict in a relationship significantly increases franchisee opportunism. Furthermore, conflict mediates the effects of other antecedents in the framework which include alternative attractiveness, goal incongruity, unfairness, transaction-specific investments, and termination cost. The study provides theoretical and managerial insights into understanding and controlling opportunism.

64 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Uncertainty makes exchanges subject to substantial opportunistic behavior that is generally believed to be curbed by the contract. However, how the contract governs the relationship between uncertainty and opportunistic behavior has not been elaborated. This paper examines the effects of uncertainty on the supplier's opportunistic behavior and the moderating effects of contractual complexity. This research classifies uncertainty into environmental uncertainty and behavioral uncertainty and distinguishes contractual complexity from a functional perspective, with elements including control, coordination and adaptation. Using data from 220 owners and general contractors in the Chinese construction industry, this research reveals that a positive relationship exists between uncertainty and opportunistic behavior. Contractual control and adaptation have effects on weakening the relationship between environmental uncertainty and opportunistic behavior, while contractual coordination can mitigate the opportunistic behavior induced by behavioral uncertainty. These findings offer new insights into uncertainty management and a nuanced understanding of contractual governance in projects.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Exporting research is an established facet of the field of international marketing. That stated, the radical increase in recent export activity necessitates a sustained research effort devoted to the topic. In this article, the authors provide a qualitative review of the core theoretical exporting areas and evaluate the exporting domain quantitatively over six decades (1958–2016). For the quantitative analysis, they use multidimensional scaling and apply established bibliometric principles to offer an understanding of the field and to provide suggestions for future exporting research. For the evaluations, the authors used data from 830 articles with 52,191 citations from 35 journals. Using cocitation analysis as the basis to evaluate the data, they propose a series of intellectual structure implications on exporting that relate to internationalization process stages, dynamic capabilities, knowledge scarcity, social networks, export marketing strategy, absorptive capacity and learning, and nonlinea...

36 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Prior research suggests that the interaction of individual agents for buyer and supplier firms influences firm level business relationships. There is a call for empirical research that investigates the interplay of cognitive judgments and behaviors of these agents in their interactions. We therefore evaluate the role that psychological contracts, or unspoken obligations can play in buyer-supplier relationship dissolution. Most empirical studies in this area have focused solely on transactional obligations. Our research uses social exchange theory to explain why breach of relational obligations matters, although they might have no immediate economic consequence. We use two scenario based experiments, with student participants and supply chain professionals, to understand reactions to relational, transactional, and combined breaches in supply chains. Interviews with seasoned, strategic sourcing agents confirm the experimental findings and provide additional insight. We find that breach of a relational psychological contract has both a direct effect on fairness perceptions, and an indirect effect mediated by an emotional response. In contrast, the effect of a breach on the decision to switch suppliers, is fully mediated by emotional response. The implication is that suppliers may be able to ameliorate relationship dissolution by dampening the buyer's emotional response to the psychological breach. The interviews reveal that in practice, relational breaches can be the cause of relationship termination, though a transactional breach may be used as justification. Thus we demonstrate the importance of understanding and fulfilling unspoken relational obligations.

25 citations


Performance
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Author's H-index: 4

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20211
20201
20191
20171
20161