About: Northwest University (China) is a education organization based out in Xi'an, China. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Zircon & Craton. The organization has 17026 authors who have published 16954 publications receiving 253149 citations. The organization is also known as: Northwest University (China) & Xīběi Dàxué.
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of Oxford1, Federal University of São Paulo2, University of the Witwatersrand3, Stellenbosch University4, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine5, University of Sheffield6, University of London7, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust8, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust9, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust10, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust11, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust12, St George's, University of London13, AstraZeneca14, North Bristol NHS Trust15, University College Hospital16, University of Hull17, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública18, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte19, Northwest University (China)20, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria21, Glasgow Dental Hospital and School22, Boston Children's Hospital23, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul24, Western General Hospital25, University of Glasgow26, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust27, University of Cambridge28, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust29, Aneurin Bevan University Health Board30
TL;DR: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has an acceptable safety profile and has been found to be efficacious against symptomatic COVID-19 in this interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials.
Abstract: Background A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials. Methods This analysis includes data from four ongoing blinded, randomised, controlled trials done across the UK, Brazil, and South Africa. Participants aged 18 years and older were randomly assigned (1:1) to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or control (meningococcal group A, C, W, and Y conjugate vaccine or saline). Participants in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group received two doses containing 5 × 1010 viral particles (standard dose; SD/SD cohort); a subset in the UK trial received a half dose as their first dose (low dose) and a standard dose as their second dose (LD/SD cohort). The primary efficacy analysis included symptomatic COVID-19 in seronegative participants with a nucleic acid amplification test-positive swab more than 14 days after a second dose of vaccine. Participants were analysed according to treatment received, with data cutoff on Nov 4, 2020. Vaccine efficacy was calculated as 1 - relative risk derived from a robust Poisson regression model adjusted for age. Studies are registered at ISRCTN89951424 and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606, NCT04400838, and NCT04444674. Findings Between April 23 and Nov 4, 2020, 23 848 participants were enrolled and 11 636 participants (7548 in the UK, 4088 in Brazil) were included in the interim primary efficacy analysis. In participants who received two standard doses, vaccine efficacy was 62·1% (95% CI 41·0–75·7; 27 [0·6%] of 4440 in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group vs71 [1·6%] of 4455 in the control group) and in participants who received a low dose followed by a standard dose, efficacy was 90·0% (67·4–97·0; three [0·2%] of 1367 vs 30 [2·2%] of 1374; pinteraction=0·010). Overall vaccine efficacy across both groups was 70·4% (95·8% CI 54·8–80·6; 30 [0·5%] of 5807 vs 101 [1·7%] of 5829). From 21 days after the first dose, there were ten cases hospitalised for COVID-19, all in the control arm; two were classified as severe COVID-19, including one death. There were 74 341 person-months of safety follow-up (median 3·4 months, IQR 1·3–4·8): 175 severe adverse events occurred in 168 participants, 84 events in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and 91 in the control group. Three events were classified as possibly related to a vaccine: one in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group, one in the control group, and one in a participant who remains masked to group allocation. Interpretation ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has an acceptable safety profile and has been found to be efficacious against symptomatic COVID-19 in this interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials.
TL;DR: In this paper, an internal standard-independent calibration strategy for LA-ICP-MS analysis of anhydrous minerals and glasses was described, where the ablation yield correction factor (AYCF) was used to correct the matrix-dependent absolute amount of materials ablated during each run.
Abstract: Here we describe an internal standard-independent calibration strategy for LA-ICP-MS analysis of anhydrous minerals and glasses. Based on the normalization of the sum of all metal oxides to 100 wt.%, the ablation yield correction factor (AYCF) was used to correct the matrix-dependent absolute amount of materials ablated during each run. A Y C F = 100 ∑ j = 1 N ( c p s sam j × l j ) , l j = C rm j / c p s rm j , where cpssamj and cpsrmj are net count rates of analyte element j of the sample and reference material for calibration, Crmj is concentration of element j in the reference material, N is the number of elements that can be determined by LA-ICP-MS. When multiple reference materials were used for calibration, l value can be calculated with regression statistics according to the used reference materials. Applying an AYCF and using the USGS reference glasses BCR-2G, BHVO-2G and BIR-1G as reference materials for external calibration, analyses of MPI-DING reference glasses generally agree with recommended values within 5% for major elements (relative standard deviation (RSD) = 0.3–3.9% except for P2O5, n = 11), and 5–10% for trace elements. Analyses of anhydrous silicate minerals (clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and garnet) and spinel generally agree with the results of electron microprobe analysis within 0.2–7% for SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO and CaO. RSD are generally 0.1 wt.%. The results indicate that, by applying an AYCF and using USGS reference glasses as multiple reference materials for calibration, elements of these anhydrous minerals can be precisely analyzed in situ by LA-ICP-MS without applying internal standardization. The different element fractionations between the NIST glasses and those glasses with natural compositions indicate that NIST SRM 610 is a less than ideal reference material for external calibration of analyses of natural silicates.
TL;DR: In this article, the first finding of continental crust-derived Precambrian zircons in garnet/spinel pyroxenite veins within mantle xenoliths carried by the Neogene Hannuoba basalt in the central zone of the North China Craton (NCC).
Abstract: We present the first finding of continental crust-derived Precambrian zircons in garnet/spinel pyroxenite veins within mantle xenoliths carried by the Neogene Hannuoba basalt in the central zone of the North China Craton (NCC). Petrological and geochemical features indicate that these mantle-derived composite xenoliths were formed by silicic melt^lherzolite interaction. The Precambrian zircon ages can be classified into three age groups of 2·4^2·5 Ga, 1·6^2·2 Ga and 0·6^1·2 Ga, coinciding with major geological events in the NCC. These Precambrian zircons fall in the field of continental granitoid rocks in plots of U/Yb vs Hf and Y. Their igneous-type REE patterns and metamorphic zircon type CL images indicate that they were not crystallized during melt^peridotite interaction and subsequent high-pressure metamorphism.The 2·5 Ga zircons have positive eHf(t) values (2·9^10·6), whereas the younger Precambrian zircons are dominated by negative eHf(t) values, indicating an ancient continental crustal origin.These observations suggest that the Precambrian zircons were xenocrysts that survived melting of recycled continental crustal rocks and were then injected with silicate melt into the host peridotite. In addition to the Precambrian zircons, igneous zircons of 315 3 Ma (2 ), 80^170 Ma and 48^64 Ma were separated from the garnet/spinel pyroxenite veins; these provide evidence for lower continental crust and oceanic crust recycling-induced multi-episodic melt^peridotite interactions in the central zone of the NCC. The combination of the positive eHf(t) values (2·91^24·6) of the 315 Ma zircons with the rare occurrence of 302^324 Ma subduction-related diorite^granite plutons in the northern margin of the NCC implies that the 315 Ma igneous zircons might record melt^peridotite interactions in the lithospheric mantle induced by Palaeo-Asian oceanic crust subduction. Igneous zircons of age 80^170 Ma generally coexist with the Precambrian metamorphic zircons and have lower Ce/Yb and Th/U ratios, higher U/Yb ratios and greater negative Eu anomalies.The eHf(t) values of these zircons vary greatly from ^47·6 to 24·6.The 170^110 Ma zircons are generally characterized by negative eHf(t) values, whereas the 110^100 Ma zircons have positive eHf(t) values.These observations suggest that melt^peridotite interactions at 80^170 Ma were induced by partial melting of recycled continental crust. The 48^64 Ma igneous zircons are characterized by negligible Ce anomalies, unusually high REE, U and Th contents, and positive eHf(t) values.These features imply that the melt^peridotite interactions at 48^64 Ma could be associated with a depleted mantle-derived carbonate melt or fluid.
TL;DR: It is suggested that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the NorthChina craton.
Abstract: Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton.
TL;DR: The crustal growth and stabilization of the North China Craton (NCC) relate to three major geological events in the Precambrian: (1) a major phase of continental growth at ca. 2.9-2.7 Ga, (2) the amalgamation of micro-blocks and cratonization at 2.5-3.5 Ga, and (3) Paleoproterozoic rifting-subduction-accretion-collision tectonics and subsequent high-grade granulite facies metamorphism-granitoid mag
Abstract: The crustal growth and stabilization of the North China Craton (NCC) relate to three major geological events in the Precambrian: (1) a major phase of continental growth at ca. 2.7 Ga; (2) the amalgamation of micro-blocks and cratonization at ca. 2.5 Ga; and (3) Paleoproterozoic rifting–subduction–accretion–collision tectonics and subsequent high-grade granulite facies metamorphism–granitoid magmatism during ca. 2.0–1.82. The major period of continental growth during 2.9–2.7 Ga in the NCC correlates with the global growth of Earth's crust recognized from other regions. The enormous volume of tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) rocks and associated komatiite-bearing magmatic suites developed during this period possibly suggest the manifestation of plume tectonics. The cratonization of the NCC at the end of Neoarchean at ca. 2.5 Ga (Archean–Proterozoic boundary) through the amalgamation of micro-blocks was accompanied by granulite facies metamorphism and voluminous intrusion of crustally-derived granitic melts leading to the construction of the basic tectonic framework of the NCC. Several Neoarchean greenstone belts surround the micro-blocks and represent the vestiges of older arc–continent collision. The next major imprint in the NCC is the Paleoproterozoic orogenic events during 2.35 -1.82 Ga which involved rifting followed by subduction -accretion -collision processes, followed by plume-triggered extension and rifting, offering important insights into modern-style plate tectonics operating in the Paleoproterozoic. Extreme crustal metamorphism and formation of high pressure (HP) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) orogens during 1950–1820 Ma accompanied the subduction–collision process and the suturing of continental blocks within the Paleoproterozoic supercontinent Columbia. Multiple subduction zones with opposing subduction polarity promoted the rapid assembly of crustal fragments of the NCC and their incorporation into the Columbia supercontinent. The HP and HT-UHT granulites demonstrate two main stages of metamorphism at ca. 1.95–1.89 Ga and at ca. 1.85–1.82 Ga, exhuming the basement rocks from lowermost crust level to the lower-middle crust level. With the emplacement of extensive mafic dyke swarms associated with continental rifting, and the intrusion of anorogenic magmatic suites, the evolution of the NCC into a stable continental platform was finally accomplished.
Showing all 17136 results
|Jaspal S. Kooner||109||284||65969|
|Mark C. Hersam||107||659||46813|
|Colin A. Chapman||92||491||28217|
Related Institutions (5)
Chinese Academy of Sciences
634.8K papers, 14.8M citations
47.6K papers, 1.4M citations
University of Science and Technology of China
101K papers, 2.4M citations
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
122.5K papers, 2.1M citations
Arizona State University
109.6K papers, 4.4M citations