Showing papers in "Genetics in 1981"
TL;DR: This application has suggested that the evolutionary change of mtDNA in higher animals occurs mainly by nucleotide substitution rather than by deletion and insertion, and the evolutionary distances among the three species have been estimated.
Abstract: Data on DNA polymorphisms detected by restriction endonucleases are rapidly accumulating. With the aim of analyzing these data, several different measures of nucleon (DNA segment) diversity within and between populations are proposed, and statistical methods for estimating these quantities are developed. These statistical methods are applicable to both nuclear and nonnuclear DNAs. When evolutionary change of nucleons occurs mainly by mutation and genetic drift, all the measures can be expressed in terms of the product of mutation rate per nucleon and effective population size. A method for estimating nucleotide diversity from nucleon diversity is also presented under certain assumptions. It is shown that DNA divergence between two populations can be studied either by the average number of restriction site differences or by the average number of nucleotide differences. In either case, a large number of different restriction enzymes should be used for studying phylogenetic relationships among related organisms, since the effect of stochastic factors on these quantities is very large. The statistical methods developed have been applied to data of Shah and Langley on mitochondrial (mt)DNA from Drosophila melanogaster, simulans and virilis. This application has suggested that the evolutionary change of mtDNA in higher animals occurs mainly by nucleotide substitution rather than by deletion and insertion. The evolutionary distances among the three species have also been estimated.
TL;DR: The widespread occurrence of recessive mutants is seen to be the inevitable consequence of the kinetic structure of enzyme networks, and Wright's analysis, substantially sound in its approach, proposed selection of a "safety factor" in enzyme activity.
Abstract: The best known genes of microbes, mice and men are those that specify enzymes. Wild type, mutant and heterozygote for variants of such genes differ in the catalytic activity at the step in the enzyme network specified by the gene in question. The effect on the respective phenotypes of such changes in catalytic activity, however, is not defined by the enzymes change as estimated by in vitro determination of the activities obtained from the extracts of the three groups. In vivo enzymes do not act in isolation, but are kinetically linked to other enzymes via their substrates and products. These interactions modify the effect of enzyme variation on the phenotype, depending on the nature and quantity of the other enzymes present. An output of such a system, say a flux, is therefore a systemic property, and its response to variation at one locus must be measured in the whole system. This response is best described by the sensitivity coefficient, Z, while is defined by the fractional change in flux over the fractional change in enzyme activity. (formula: see text). Its magnitude determines the extent to which a particular enzyme "controls" a particular flux or phenotype and, implicitly, determines the values that the three phenotypes will have. There are as many sensitivity coefficients for a given flux as there are enzymes in the system. It can be shown that the sum of all such coefficients equals unity. (formula: see text). Since n, the number of enzymes, is large, this summation property results in the individual coefficients being small. The effect of making a large change in enzyme activity therefore usually results in only a negligible change in flux. A reduction to 50% activity in the heterozygote, a common feature for many mutants, is therefore not expected to be detectable in the phenotype. The mutant would therefore be described as "recessive". The widespread occurrence of recessive mutants is thus seen to be the inevitable consequence of the kinetic structure of enzyme networks. The ad hoc hypothesis of "modifiers" selected to maximize the fitness of the heterozygote, as proposed by Fisher, is therefore unnecessary. It is based on the false general expectation of an intermediate phenotype in the heterozygote. Wright's analysis, substantially sound in its approach, proposed selection of a "safety factor" in enzyme activity. The derivation of the summation property explains why such safety factors are automatically present in almost all enzymes without selection.
TL;DR: The minimum number of genes involved in producing a large difference between populations in a quantitative trait is typically estimated to be about 5 or 10, with occasional values up to 20, which strongly supports the neo-Darwinian theory that large evolutionary changes usually occur by the accumulation of multiple genetic factors with relatively small effects.
Abstract: A procedure is outlined for estimating the minimum number of freely segregating genetic factors, nE, contributing to the difference in a quantitative character between two populations that have diverged by artificial or natural selection. If certain simple criteria are satisfied approximately on an appropriate scale of measurement, nE can be estimated by comparing the phenotypic means and variances in the two parental populations and in their F1 and F2 hybrids (and backcrosses). This generalizes the method of Wright to genetically heterogeneous (or wild) parental populations, as well as inbred lines. Standard errors of the estimates are derived for large samples. The minimum number of genes involved in producing a large difference between populations in a quantitative trait is typically estimated to be about 5 or 10, with occasional values up to 20. This strongly supports the neo-Darwinian theory that large evolutionary changes usually occur by the accumulation of multiple genetic factors with relatively small effects.
TL;DR: Application of the formulae to data from an isolated population of Dacus oleae has shown that the effective size of this population is about one tenth of the minimum census size, though there was a possibility that the procedure of sampling genes was improper.
Abstract: The statistical properties of the standardized variance of gene frequency changes (a quantity equivalent to Wright's inbreeding coefficient) in a random mating population are studied, and new formulae for estimating the effective population size are developed. The accuracy of the formulae depends on the ratio of sample size to effective size, the number of generations involved (t), and the number of loci or alleles used. It is shown that the standardized variance approximately follows the chi(2) distribution unless t is very large, and the confidence interval of the estimate of effective size can be obtained by using this property. Application of the formulae to data from an isolated population of Dacus oleae has shown that the effective size of this population is about one tenth of the minimum census size, though there was a possibility that the procedure of sampling genes was improper.
TL;DR: Findings suggest that the SNF1 locus is involved in the regulation of gene expression by glucose repression, and suggests that SUC2 encodes a protein, probably a dimer or multimer.
Abstract: Utilization of sucrose as a source of carbon and energy in yeast (Saccharomyces) is controlled by the classical SUC genes, which confer the ability to produce the sucrose-degrading enzyme invertase (Mortimer and Hawthorne 1969). Mutants of S. cerevisiae strain S288C ( SUC2 + ) unable to grow anaerobically on sucrose, but still able to use glucose, were isolated. Two major complementation groups were identified: twenty-four recessive mutations at the SUC2 locus ( suc2 - ); and five recessive mutations defining a new locus, SNF1 (for sucrose n on f ermenting), essential for sucrose utilization. Two minor complementation groups, each comprising a single member with a leaky sucrose-nonfermenting phenotype, were also identified. The suc2 mutations isolated include four suppressible amber mutations and five mutations apparently exhibiting intragenic complementation; complementation analysis and mitotic mapping studies indicated that all of the suc2 mutations are alleles of a single gene. These results suggest that SUC2 encodes a protein, probably a dimer or multimer. No invertase activity was detected in suc2 mutants.—The SNF1 locus is not tightly linked to SUC2 . The snf1 mutations were found to be pleiotropic, preventing sucrose utilization by SUC2 + and SUC7 + strains, and also preventing utilization of galactose, maltose and several nonfermentable carbon sources. Although snf1 mutants thus display a petite phenotype, classic petite mutations do not interfere with utilization of sucrose, galactose or maltose. A common feature of all the carbon utilization systems affected by SNF1 is that all are regulated by glucose repression. The snf1 mutants were found to produce the constitutive nonglycosylated form of invertase, but failed to produce the glucose-repressible, glycosylated, secreted invertase. This failure cannot be attributed to a general defect in production of glycosylated and secreted proteins because synthesis of acid phosphatase, a glycosylated secreted protein not subject to glucose repression, was not affected by snf1 mutations. These findings suggest that the SNF1 locus is involved in the regulation of gene expression by glucose repression.
TL;DR: Natural selection for late-age fitness components increased late fecundity, female longevity, and the duration of female reproduction, while early fecundities and mean egg-laying rate decreased.
Abstract: Two types of small-scale selection experiments were performed. (1) Artificial selection experiments were performed on age-specific female fecundity. Selection for early fecundity over three generations produced a statistically detectable direct response. There was no detectable indirect response in other life-history characters. Selection for late fecundity over three generations did not produce any detectable direct response. Indirect responses were detected: early egg-laying decreased and longevity increased. (2) Natural selection for late-age fitness components increased late fecundity, female longevity, and the duration of female reproduction, while early fecundity and mean egg-laying rate decreased.
TL;DR: It is shown that the average frequency of an allele conditioned on the number of local populations it appears in-the conditional average frequency-is approximately independent of both the selection intensity and mutation rates assumed, but depends strongly on the overall level of gene flow.
Abstract: The results from a simulation model of selection, mutation and genetic drift in a geographically subdivided population are presented. The infinite-alleles mutation model of Kimura and Crow (1964) is asumed, and both advantageous and deleterious mutations are considered. It is shown that the average frequency of an allele conditioned on the number of local populations it appears in—the conditional average frequency—is approximately independent of both the selection intensity and mutation rates assumed, but depends strongly on the overall level of gene flow. This result justifies the use of the conditional average frequency to obtain a rough estimate of the level of gene flow in a subdivided population. Data from 16 species are presented and discussed. There are large differences in the conditional average frequencies of different species, although there is some consistency within taxa. Some species apparently have high levels of gene flow and others, particularly salamanders, have low levels. Alternative explanations for the patterns found in the data are considered.
TL;DR: A sib analysis of adult life-history characters from a laboratory Drosophila melanogaster population that had been sampled from nature and cultured so as to preserve its genetic variability found negative genetic correlations between early fecundity and lifespan, as well as between mean egg-laying rate and longevity.
Abstract: A sib analysis of adult life-history characters was performed on about twelve hundred females from a laboratory Drosophila melanogaster population that had been sampled from nature and cultured so as to preserve its genetic variability. The following results were found. There was no detectable trend with age in additive or dominance genetic variances for age-specific fecundity. Environmental variance for age-specific fecundity increased with age. The genetic variance for fecundity characters was primarily additive. The genetic variance for longevity was primarily dominance variance. There were negative genetic correlations between early fecundity and lifespan, as well as between mean egg-laying rate and longevity.
TL;DR: Most of the genetic diversity observed in this human host is a consequence of successive invasions of E. coli genotypes, suggesting recombination plays a minor role in the generation of genetic diversity.
Abstract: Electrophoretic techniques were employed to study variation in chromosomal genes encoding enzymes and in the distribution of cryptic plasmids in the E. coli population of a human host over an 11-month period. Thirteen of the 15 enzymes studied were polymorphic, and mean genetic diversity per locus was 0.39. Among 550 clones isolated from fecal samples, protein electrophoresis revealed 53 distinct electrophoretic types (ETs). Most ETs appeared on only one or a few days and were considered transients, but two (ET-12 and ET-13) were observed many times over extended periods and represented residents. Complete turnover in the transient ETs in the population occurred in periods of from two weeks to a month. ETs appearing in one month showed no particular genetic similarity to those of the previous month. — All but 4 of the 53 ETs carried one or more "cryptic" plasmids with molecular weights ranging from 1 to 80 megadaltons. With few exceptions, the plasmid composition of each ET was unique. In the course of the 11-month sampling period, there were changes in the plasmid profiles of the resident strains ET-12 and ET-13, and also in the profile of a recurrent strain, ET-2, which was isolated on four days. Modification of the plasmid profile of ET-12 involved the sequential addition of relatively high molecular weight bands. For ET-2 and ET-13, the changes in the plasmid profiles were radical, suggesting invasions of new cell types rather than merely the addition and deletion of plasmids. — The results of this study provide three lines of evidence that recombination plays a minor role in the generation of genetic diversity in the E. coli population of a single host. (1) Several pairs of loci were in strong linkage disequilibrium; compared to a randomly generated array of genotypes, the sample of ETs contained an excess of pairs differing at one or two loci and too many pairs with highly distinctive combinations of electromorphs. (2) In most cases where pairs of ETs differed at a single locus and, therefore, could reasonably have been generated by phage- or plasmid-mobilized gene transfer, the plasmid profiles of the pair members were radically different and/or the potentially transmitted alleles were not present in other ETs in the population. (3) Although ET-12 was abundant, being represented by 252 of the 550 clones sampled, the electrophoretic type most similar to ET-12 different from it at six loci, and ET-12 carried two unique alleles. We conclude that most of the genetic diversity observed in this human host is a consequence of successive invasions of E. coli genotypes.
TL;DR: In this study, the following agents have been shown to induce the same genetic change: guanidine hydrochloride at 1 mM, dimethyl sulfoxide at 2.5% v/v and ethanol or methanol at 10% v-v.
Abstract: The [psi] factor of yeast is cytoplasmically inherited. Singh, Helms and Sherman (1979) reported that high concentrations of KCl and of ethylene glycol induce the genetic change from [psi+] to [psi-]. In this study, the following agents have been shown to induce the same genetic change: guanidine hydrochloride at 1 mm, dimethyl sulfoxide at 2.5% v/v and ethanol or methanol at 10% v/v. It is likely that a number of other agents also cause the change, namely 2 m glycerol, m succinate, m glutamate and m MgCl2. Most of these agents induce the change at very high frequencies; with some, the frequency is 100%. Although the observed phenotypic change can also occur as a result of chromosomal gene mutation, no changes of this type were identified. Some of the agents also cause mutation from [rho+] to [rho-] and from killer to sensitive.
TL;DR: It is postulated that E. coli is composed of a relatively limited number of geographically widespread and genetically nearly isolated and monomorphic lineages, and the implications of these considerations of the genetic structure of E. bacteria populations on the interpretation of protein variation and the neutral gene hypothesis are discussed.
Abstract: As a consequence of sequential replacements by clones of higher fitness (periodic selection), bacterial populations would be continually purged of genetic variability, and the fate of selectively neutral alleles in very large populations of bacteria would be similar to that in demes of sexually reproducing organisms with small genetically effective population sizes. The significance of periodic selection in reducing genetic variability in these clonally reproducing species is dependent on the amount of genetic exchange between clones (recombination). In an effort to determine the relationship between the rates of periodic selection, recombination and the genetically effective sizes of bacterial populations, a model for periodic selection and infectious gene exchange has been developed and its properties analyzed. It shows that, for a given periodic selection regime, genetically effective population size increases exponentially with the rate of recombination.--With the parameters of this model in the range anticipated for natural populations of E. coli, the purging effects of periodic selection on genetic variability are significant; individual populations or lineages of this bacterial species would have very small genetically effective population sizes.--Based on this result, some other a priori considerations and a review of the results of epidemiological and genetic variability studies, it is postulated that E. coli is composed of a relatively limited number of geographically widespread and genetically nearly isolated and monomorphic lineages. The implications of these considerations of the genetic structure of E. coli populations on the interpretation of protein variation and the neutral gene hypothesis are discussed.
TL;DR: Phenotypes of mice of several mutant genotypes provide exceptions to the frequent observation that a double dose of dominant W alleles results in defects of corresponding severity in each of the three affected tissues, and support the hypothesis that each new mutant gene is a W allele.
Abstract: Characterization of the pleiotropic effects of ten new putative W locus mutations, nine co-isogenic and one highly congenic with the C57BL/6J strain, reveals a wide variety of influences upon pigmentation, blood formation and gametogenesis. None of the putative alleles, each of which is closely linked to Ph, a gene 0.1 cM from W, gave evidence of complementation with W39, a new allele previously shown to be allelic to Wv. All W*/W39 genotypes resulted in black-eyed-white anemics with reduced gametogenic activity.1 Homozygotes for seven of these mutations are lethal during perinatal life; anemic embryos have been identified in litters produced by intercross matings involving each of these alleles.—Phenotypes of mice of several mutant genotypes provide exceptions to the frequent observation that a double dose of dominant W alleles (e.g., W/Wv or W/W) results in defects of corresponding severity in each of the three affected tissues. One viable homozygote has little or no defect in blood formation, and another appears to have normal fertility. The phenotypes of these homozygotes support the conclusion that the three tissue defects are not dependent on each other for their appearance and probably do not result from a single physiological disturbance during the development of the embryo.—Although homozygosity for members of this series results in a wide range of phenotypes, the absence of complementation of any allele with W39, the close proximity of each mutant to Ph, and the fact that all alleles produce detectable (though sometimes marginal) defects in the same tissues affected by W and Wv, support the hypothesis that each new mutant gene is a W allele.
TL;DR: Four of the waxy mutants including B3, a controlling-element mutation, are similar to wild type in molecular weight as determined by electrophoresis in SDS acrylamide gels.
Abstract: Minimal limits for the structural gene at the waxy locus have been set by investigations of the protein product of the gene. An altered protein is produced by four of the waxy mutants including B3 , a controlling-element mutation. All are similar to wild type in molecular weight as determined by electrophoresis in SDS acrylamide gels. At least three of the five wx controlling-element mutations studied have been shown to lie within the limits of the structural gene.
TL;DR: Most proteins exhibit structural-gene-dosage effects through the ploidy series, but others show a positive effect greater than expected from varying the structural genes, and still others are negatively affected by ploidsome changes.
Abstract: Genetically defined dosage series of chromosome arms 1L, 3L, 4S, 5L, 7L, 9S, 10L and combinations of 1L-3L, collectively spanning approximately one-third of the maize genome, were examined for alterations in the expression of total protein profiles in scutellar tissue. The major effects found were negative correlations of specific proteins with the dosage of particular regions in a manner similar to that previously described for enzyme activity levels (Birchler 1979). Chromosome arms 1L, 4S and 5L produced the most severe negative effects, with 3L and 7L exhibiting this phenomenon to a lesser degree. Positive correlations of certain proteins were observed with the dosage of the 1L, 3L, 5L and 7L regions. The structural locus of one of the major scutellar proteins (PRO) is present in the long arm of chromosome 1 (Schwartz 1979), but exhibits compensation in a dosage series involving whole-arm comparisons. Multiple factors in 1L affect the level of the protein. The compound TB-1La-3L4759-3 (1L 0.20-0.39) has a slight negative effect on PRO, while TB-1La-3Le (1L 0.20-0.58) and TB-1La-3L5267 (1L 0.20-0.72) have a more pronounced negative influence. The level of this protein is not altered by the dosage of 3L. These observations suggest that compensation is brought about by the cancellation of a positive structural gene dosage effect by the negative inverse effect. Other regions of the genome that contribute to the control of PRO levels are 4S and 5L. Total protein profiles were also compared in haploid, diploid and tetraploid maize as a comparison to the aneuploid series. Most proteins exhibit structural-gene-dosage effects through the ploidy series, but others show a positive effect greater than expected from varying the structural genes. Still others are negatively affected by ploidy changes. In general, the ploidy alterations are not as great as predicted from the cumulative action of the aneuploid effects. The bearing of these observations on the biochemical basis of aneuploid syndromes is discussed.
TL;DR: The clines and the nonrandom associations between the two major autosomes are best interpreted in terms of selection operating to maintain the common cosmopolitan inversion polymorphisms in natural populations of D. melanogaster.
Abstract: Nineteen Australasian populations of Drosophila melanogaster have been screened for chromosome inversion polymorphisms. All 15 of the inversion types found are paracentric and autosomal, but only four of these, one on each of the major autosome arms, are common and cosmopolitan. North-south clines occur, with the frequencies of all four of the common cosmopolitan inversions increasing toward the equator. These clines in the Southern Hemisphere mirror north-south clines in the Northern Hemisphere, where the frequencies of all four of the common cosmopolitan inversions again increase towards the equator.—While few of the Australasian populations show significant disequilibrium between linked common cosmopolitan inversions, those that do invariably have excesses of coupling gametes, which is consistent with other reports. We also find nonrandom associations between the two major autosomes, with the northern populations in Australasia (those with high inversion frequencies) tending to be deficient in gametes with common cosmopolitan inversions on both major autosomes, while the southern populations in Australasia (low inversion frequencies) tend to have an excess of this class of gametes.—The clines and the nonrandom associations between the two major autosomes are best interpreted in terms of selection operating to maintain the common cosmopolitan inversion polymorphisms in natural populations of D. melanogaster.
TL;DR: Estimates of genetic distances between the various races and subspecies were obtained by comparing cleavage maps of the mtDNAs with various restriction enzymes and suggest that M. molossinus is situated in a unique evolutionary position among Asian subspecies.
Abstract: The intra- and intersubspecific genetic distances between five subspecies of Mus musculus were estimated from restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of maps of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The European subspecies, M. m. domesticus and Asian subspecies, M. m. bactrianus, M. m. castaneus, M. m. molossinus and M. m. urbanus were examined. For each subspecies, except M. m. urbanus, at least two local races from widely separated localities were examined. Intrasubspecific heterogeneity was found in the mtDNA cleavage patterns of M. m. bactrianus and M. m. castaneus. M. m. molossinus and M. m. domesticus, however, revealed no intrasubspecific heterogeneity. Four of the subspecies had distinct cleavage patterns. The fifth, M. m. urbanus, had cleavage patterns identical to those of M. m. castaneus with several enzymes. Estimates of genetic distances between the various races and subspecies were obtained by comparing cleavage maps of the mtDNAs with various restriction enzymes. Nucleotide sequence divergences of mtDNA between local races were estimated to be less than 0.4% in M. m. bactrianus and less than 0.3% in M. m. castaneus. The times of divergence of both subspecies were calculated to be 0.1--0.2 x 10(6) years. These values suggest that the intrasubspecific divergence began some 0.1--0.2 x 10(6) years ago. On the other hand, nucleotide sequence divergences between European subspecies M. m. domesticus and Asian subspecies M. m. bactrianus and M. m. castaneus were 7.1% ane 5.8%, respectively. The times of divergence were calculated to be 2.1--2.6 x 10(6) years. Further, the nucleotide sequence divergence and time of divergence between M. m. molossinus and the other two Asian subspecies were comparable to those between M. m. molossinus and M. m. domesticus (about 3% and 1 x 10(6) years, respectively). These results suggest that M. m. molossinus is situated in a unique evolutionary position among Asian subspecies.
TL;DR: A total of 34 third chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster that render homozygous larvae hypersensitive to killing by chemical mutagens have been isolated and preliminary biochemical analyses have implicated seven of these loci in DNA metabolism.
Abstract: A total of 34 third chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster that render homozygous larvae hypersensitive to killing by chemical mutagens have been isolated. Genetic analyses have placed responsible mutations in more than eleven complementation groups. Mutants in three complementation groups are strongly sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate, those in one are sensitive to nitrogen mustard, and mutants in six groups are hypersensitive to both mutagens. Eight of the ten loci mapped fall within 15% of the genetic map that encompasses the centromere of chromosome 3. Mutants from four of the complementation groups are associated with moderate to strong meiotic effects in females. Preliminary biochemical analyses have implicated seven of these loci in DNA metabolism.
TL;DR: It is shown that overdominant selection is very powerful in increasing the mean heterozygosity as compared with neutral mutations, and if 2Ns is larger than 10, a very low mutation rate is sufficient to explain the observed level of allozyme polymorphism.
Abstract: Mathematical properties of the overdominance model with mutation and random genetic drift are studied by using the method of stochastic differential equations (Ito and McKean 1974). It is shown that overdominant selection is very powerful in increasing the mean heterozygosity as compared with neutral mutations, and if 2 Ns ( N = effective population size; s = selective disadvantage for homozygotes) is larger than 10, a very low mutation rate is sufficient to explain the observed level of allozyme polymorphism. The distribution of heterozygosity for overdominant genes is considerably different from that of neutral mutations, and if the ratio of selection coefficient ( s ) to mutation rate (ν) is large and the mean heterozygosity ( h ) is lower than 0.2, single-locus heterozygosity is either approximately 0 or 0.5. If h increases further, however, heterozygosity shows a multiple-peak distribution. Reflecting this type of distribution, the relationship between the mean and variance of heterozygosity is considerably different from that for neutral genes. When s/v is large, the proportion of polymorphic loci increases approximately linearly with mean heterozygosity. The distribution of allele frequencies is also drastically different from that of neutral genes, and generally shows a peak at the intermediate gene frequency. Implications of these results on the maintenance of allozyme polymorphism are discussed.
TL;DR: It is proposed that bglY encodes a protein acting as a repressor of the bglBSRC operon, active in both the presence and absence of beta-glucosides, whose recognition site would be within the b glR locus.
Abstract: Escherichia coli K12 does not metabolize beta-glucosides such as arbutin and salicin because of lack of expression of the bglBSRC operon, which contains structural genes for transport (bglC) and hydrolysis (bglB) of phospho-beta-glucosides. Mutants carrying lesions in the cis-acting regulatory site bglR metabolize beta-glucosides as a consequence of expression of this cryptic operon (Prasad and Schaefler 1974). We isolated mutations promoting beta-glucoside metabolism that were unlinked to bglR; some of these mutations were shown to be amber. All of them were mapped at 27 min on the E. coli K12 linkage map and appeared to define a single gene, for which we propose the designation bglY. Utilization of beta-glucosides in bglY mutants appeared to be a consequence of expression of the bglBSRC operon, since bglB bglR and bglB bglY double mutants had the same phenotype. All bglY mutations analyzed were recessive to the wild-type bglY+ allele. Phospho-beta-glucosidase B and beta-glucoside transport activities are inducible in bglY mutants, as they are in bglR mutants. Metabolism of beta-glucosides in both bglR and bglY mutants required cyclic AMP. We propose that bglY encodes a protein acting as a repressor of the bglBSRC operon, active in both the presence and absence of beta-glucosides, whose recognition site would be within the bglR locus.
TL;DR: Application of formulae derived to histone genes H2B and H3 of the sea urchin showed that, in each of these genes, the rate in the third codon position is tremendously higher than that in the second position, which can easily and consistently be interpreted by the neutral theory of molecular evolution.
Abstract: A model of evolutionary base substitutions that can incorporate different substitutional rates between the four bases and that takes into account unequal composition of bases in DNA sequences is proposed. Using this model, we derived formulae that enable us to estimate the evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. In order to check the validity of various formulae, Monte Carlo experiments were performed. These formulae were applied to analyze data on DNA sequences from diverse organisms. Particular attention was paid to problems concerning a globin pseudogene in the mouse and the time of its origin through duplication. We obtained a result suggesting that the evolutionary rates of substitution in the first and second codon positions of the pseudogene were roughly 10 times faster than those in the normal globin genes; whereas, the rate in the third position remained almost unchanged. Application of our formulae to histone genes H2B and H3 of the sea urchin showed that, in each of these genes, the rate in the third codon position is tremendously higher than that in the second position. All of these observations can easily and consistently be interpreted by the neutral theory of molecular evolution.
TL;DR: The Caenorhabditis elegans mutation e873, which results in a recessive uncoordinated phenotype, has now been found to act as a crossover suppressor and to be associated with a translocation between linkage groups (LG's) III and V.
Abstract: The Caenorhabditis elegans mutation e873, which results in a recessive uncoordinated phenotype (formerly named Unc-72) and which had been isolated after 32P treatment (Brenner 1974), has now been found to act as a crossover suppressor and to be associated with a translocation between linkage groups (LG's) III and V. The translocation has been named, eT1(III; V); eT1 acts as a dominant crossover suppressor for both the right half of LGIII and the left half of LGV, providing a balancer for a total of 39 map units. The uncoordinated e873 phenotype has been shown to be a consequence of an inactive unc-36III gene. It was possible to demonstrate that, in translocation heterozygotes, eT1 chromosomes marked with either sma-3 or dpy-11 segregate from normal LGIII, while those marked with bli-5, sma-2 or unc-42 segregate from normal LGV. Since bli-5 and sma-2 are normally on LGIII, and dpy-11 is normally on LGV, it is concluded that: (a) eT1 is a reciprocal translocation; (b) there is a breakpoint between sma-3 and sma-2 in LGIII (the region containing unc-36) and one between dpy-11 and unc-42 in LGV; (c) there is no dominant centromere between sma-2 and bli-5 on LGIII, since in eT1 these genes are not linked to a LGIII centromere. Similarly, it is highly unlikely that there is a centromere to the left of dpy-11 on LGV. The new gene order in eT1 was determined by measuring recombination rates between markers in eT1 homozygotes. It is concluded that the new order is: dpy-1 sma-3 (break) dpy-11 unc-60, and bli-5 sma-2 (break) unc-42 unc-51.—This is the first analysis of a C. elegans translocation with respect to reciprocity, breakpoints and new gene order.
TL;DR: The development of stable nuclear-cytoplasmic gynodioecy in a mathematical model is new and is possible because of the consideration of the separate relative female fertilities, as well as some theoretical schemes that seem to correspond to observed actual situations.
Abstract: A study is described of the influence of the introduction of a dominant nuclear restorer gene into a cytoplasmic gynodioecious plant population. This study includes the consideration of separate effects on the relative female fertility of nuclear, cytoplasmic and sex (phenotypic) factors. Under these assumptions, the introduction of a dominant nuclear restorer gene into a cytoplasmic gynodioecious population can lead to several different situations: persistence of cytoplasmic gynodioecy, appearance of a nuclear-cytoplasmic gynodioecy, appearance of a nuclear gynodioecy or complete restoration of male fertility. The development of stable nuclear-cytoplasmic gynodioecy in a mathematical model is new and is possible because of the consideration of the separate relative female fertilities. The possibility of a transformation of cytoplasmic gynodioecy into a nuclear one has never been obtained before. It could constitute a route for the appearance of this latter kind of gynodioecy in plant populations. Finally, the possibilities of evolution of gynodioecy from one kind to the other, and towards dioecy, are discussed, as are some theoretical schemes that seem to correspond to observed actual situations.
TL;DR: In this article, the degradation of the proteinase B deficiency is epistatic to the degradation deficit attributable to the carboxypeptidase Y deficiency, which is not sporulation specific, for diploids of a/a mating type.
Abstract: During the process of sporulation, a/α diploids degrade about 50% of their vegetative proteins. This degradation is not sporulation specific, for asporogenous diploids of a/a mating type degrade their vegetative proteins in a fashion similar to that of their a/α counterparts. Diploids lacking carboxypeptidase Y activity, prc1/prc1, show about 80% of wild-type levels of protein degradation, but are unimpaired in the production of normal asci. Diploids lacking proteinase B activity, prb1/prb1, show about 50% of wild-type levels of protein degradation. The effect on degradation of the proteinase B deficiency is epistatic to the degradation deficit attributable to the carboxypeptidase Y deficiency. The prb1 homozygotes undergo meiosis and produce spores, but the asci and, possibly, the spores are abnormal. Diploids homozygous for the pleiotropic pep4–3 mutation show only 30% of the wild-type levels of degradation when exposed to a sporulation regimen, and do not undergo meiosis or sporulation. Neither proteinase B nor carboxypeptidase Y is necessary for germination of spores.——Approximately half of the colonies arising from a/a or α/α diploids exposed to the sporulation regiment that express an initially heterozygous drug-resistance marker (can1) appear to arise from mating-type switches followed by meiosis and sporulation.
TL;DR: The compensation of ADH results from the cancellation of the structural gene effect by the negative aneuploid effect, and is discussed as a model for certain other cases of dosage compensation in higher eukaryotes.
Abstract: The levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) do not exhibit a structural gene-dosage effect in a one to four dosage series of the long arm of chromosome one (1L) (Birchler 1979). This phenomenon, termed dosage compensation, has been studied in more detail. Experiments are described in which individuals aneuploid for shorter segments were examined for the level of ADH in order to characterize the genetic nature of the compensation. The relative ADH expression in segmental trisomics and tetrasomics of region 1L 0.72-0.90, which includes the Adh locus, approaches the level expected from a strict gene dosage effect. Region 1L 0.20-0.72 produces a negative effect upon ADH in a similar manner to that observed with other enzyme levels when 1L as a whole is varied (Birchler 1979). These and other comparisons have led to the concept that the compensation of ADH results from the cancellation of the structural gene effect by the negative aneuploid effect. The example of ADH is discussed as a model for certain other cases of dosage compensation in higher eukaryotes.
TL;DR: Dendrograms (phenograms), which have been constructed to depict the relationships among the various DNAs, indicate that East Asian members of the R. rattus species are more closely related to American rats of this species than to other Asian R. Rattus animals from Sri Lanka.
Abstract: Restriction endonuclease analysis has revealed extensive mtDNA polymorphism in two species of rats, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus. Sequence divergence values for the eight detected R. norvegicus variants range from 0.2% to 1.8% and for the eight R. rattus variants, from 0.2% to 9.6%. Three of the most closely related R. norvegicus mtDNA's appear to differ by deletions/insertions of about 4 base pairs apiece. Restriction sites for seven enzymes have been mapped for 11 of these variants. The 31 intraspecific and 41 interspecific variant sites appear to be evenly distributed on the mtDNA molecule outside of the rRNA cistrons. The location of sites present in all the DNAs suggests that the rRNA genes and possibly the light strand origin of replication may be more highly evolutionarily conserved than other parts of the molecule. The sequence divergences among the mtDNAs of animals whose geographic origins are separated by major barriers, such as oceans, were significantly greater than those among animals found within large land masses, such as the continental United States. Dendrograms (phenograms), which have been constructed to depict the relationships among the various DNAs, indicate that East Asian members of the R. rattus species are more closely related to American rats of this species than to other Asian R. rattus animals from Sri Lanka. Moreover, it appears that R. norvegicus comprises a group taxonomically distinct from any of the R. rattus subspecies.
TL;DR: A simple method of scaling ordered categorical responses having a joint distribution with an underlying normal variable is presented and several examples suggest little is lost, in terms of heritability, by using equally spaced scores.
Abstract: A simple method of scaling ordered categorical responses having a joint distribution with an underlying normal variable is presented. Scores are developed that maximize heritability of the observed variate and that in the class of scores based on polychotomies: (1) maximize the correlation between score and the underlying genetic value to be predicted, and (2) minimize mean-square prediction error. Several examples suggest little is lost, in terms of heritability, by using equally spaced scores. The proposed scaling method discriminates among candidates for selection that would be tied if equally spaced scores are used and sometimes yields different rankings of candidates.
TL;DR: Within a set of five separable molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase found in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, previously reported differences in kinetic properties identify two classes, A and B, likely to be under separate genetic control, a screening procedure was devised to search for mutants affected only in class A forms.
Abstract: Within a set of five separable molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase found in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, previously reported differences in kinetic properties identify two classes, A and B, likely to be under separate genetic control. Using differences between these classes in sensitivity to inactivation by sodium deoxycholate, a screening procedure was devised to search for mutants affected only in class A forms. Among 171 previously isolated behavioral and morphological mutant strains examined by this procedure, one (PR946) proved to be of the expected type, exhibiting a selective deficiency of class A acetylcholinesterase forms. Although originally isolated because of its uncoordinated behavior, this strain was subsequently shown to harbor mutations in two genes; one in the previously identified gene unc-3, accounting for its behavior, and one in a newly identified gene, ace-1, accounting for its selective acetylcholinesterase deficiency. Derivatives homozygous only for the ace-1 mutation also lacked class A acetylcholinesterase forms, but were behaviorally and developmentally indistinguishable from wild type. The gene ace-1 has been mapped near the right end of the X chromosome. Gene dosage experiments suggest that it may be a structural gene for a component of class A acetylcholinesterase forms.
TL;DR: Johnson et al. as discussed by the authors isolated 487 new behavioral and morphological mutant Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) mutants, which lack approximately 98% of the wild-type acetylcholinesterase activity and share the same specific uncoordinated phenotype; when mechanically stimulated to induce reversal, both hypercontract and become temporarily paralyzed.
Abstract: In Johnson et al. (1981), the Caenorhabditis elegans mutant strain PR1000, homozygous for the ace-1 mutation p1000 , is shown to be deficient in the class A subset of acetylcholinesterases, which comprises approximately one-half of the total C. elegans acetylcholinesterase activity. Beginning with this strain, we have isolated 487 new behavioral and morphological mutant strains. Two of these, independently derived, lack approximately 98% of the wild-type acetylcholinesterase activity and share the same specific uncoordinated phenotype; both move forward in a slow and uncoordinated manner, and when mechanically stimulated to induce reversal, both hypercontract and become temporarily paralyzed. In addition to the ace-1 mutation, both strains also harbor recessive mutations in the same newly identified gene, ace-2 , which maps to chromosome I and is therefore not linked to ace-1 . Gene dosage experiments suggest that ace-2 is a structural gene for the remaining class B acetylcholinesterases, which are not affected by ace-1 . —The uncoordinated phenotype of the newly isolated, doubly mutant strains depends on both the ace-1 and ace-2 mutations; homozygosity for either mutation alone produces normally coordinated animals. This result implies functional overlap of the acetylcholinesterases controlled by ace-1 and ace-2 , perhaps at common synapses. Consistent with this, light microscopic histochemical staining of permeabilized whole mounts indicates some areas of possible spatial overlap of these acetylcholinesterases (nerve ring, longitudinal nerve cords). In addition, there is at least one area where only ace-2 -controlled acetylcholinesterase activity appears (pharyngeo-intestinal valve).
TL;DR: A London population of Drosophila melanogaster is sampled for null alleles at twenty-five allozyme loci, and the generally greater amount of genetic variability at allo enzyme loci determined by electrophoresis lead us to doubt the validity of generalizing from allo enzymes data to the whole genome.
Abstract: We have sampled a London population of Drosophila melanogaster for null alleles at twenty-five allozyme loci. The same loci and biochemical techniques were used as in our previous survey of a North Carolina population (Voelker et al. 1980). This second survey is completely concordant with the first. No nulls were detected among the five X-linked loci. The mean frequency of nulls at the twenty autosomal loci was 0.0023. Although there is significant interlocus heterogeneity, the two populations appear to have the same frequencies at each locus. This suggests that null alleles at these allozyme loci are in mutation-selection balance, and we estimate the average heterozygous effect of an allozyme null to be 0.0015. Consideration of allozyme null-allele frequencies, the effects of allozyme null alleles on viability and fertility and the generally greater amount of genetic variability at allozyme loci determined by electrophoresis lead us to doubt the validity of generalizing from allozyme data to the whole genome.