Journal•ISSN: 0020-7748

# International Journal of Theoretical Physics

Springer Science+Business Media

About: International Journal of Theoretical Physics is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Quantum entanglement & Qubit. It has an ISSN identifier of 0020-7748. Over the lifetime, 10666 publications have been published receiving 112606 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the possibility of simulating physics in the classical approximation, a thing which is usually described by local differential equations, and the possibility that there is to be an exact simulation, that the computer will do exactly the same as nature.

Abstract: This chapter describes the possibility of simulating physics in the classical approximation, a thing which is usually described by local differential equations. But the physical world is quantum mechanical, and therefore the proper problem is the simulation of quantum physics. A computer which will give the same probabilities as the quantum system does. The present theory of physics allows space to go down into infinitesimal distances, wavelengths to get infinitely great, terms to be summed in infinite order, and so forth; and therefore, if this proposition is right, physical law is wrong. Quantum theory and quantizing is a very specific type of theory. The chapter talks about the possibility that there is to be an exact simulation, that the computer will do exactly the same as nature. There are interesting philosophical questions about reasoning, and relationship, observation, and measurement and so on, which computers have stimulated people to think about anew, with new types of thinking.

7,202 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the second-order Euler-Lagrange tensors are derived from a Lagrangian which is at most of second order in the derivatives of the field functions.

Abstract: Lagrange scalar densities which are concomitants of a pseudo-Riemannian metric-tensor, a scalar field and their derivatives of arbitrary order are considered. The most general second-order Euler-Lagrange tensors derivable from such a Lagrangian in a four-dimensional space are constructed, and it is shown that these Euler-Lagrange tensors may be obtained from a Lagrangian which is at most of second order in the derivatives of the field functions.

2,614 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the problem of rendering a computation logically reversible (e.g., creation and annihilation of a history file) in a Brownian computer, and show that it is not the making of a measurement that prevents the demon from breaking the second law but rather the logically irreversible act of erasing the record of one measurement to make room for the next.

Abstract: Computers may be thought of as engines for transforming free energy into waste heat and mathematical work. Existing electronic computers dissipate energy vastly in excess of the mean thermal energykT, for purposes such as maintaining volatile storage devices in a bistable condition, synchronizing and standardizing signals, and maximizing switching speed. On the other hand, recent models due to Fredkin and Toffoli show that in principle a computer could compute at finite speed with zero energy dissipation and zero error. In these models, a simple assemblage of simple but idealized mechanical parts (e.g., hard spheres and flat plates) determines a ballistic trajectory isomorphic with the desired computation, a trajectory therefore not foreseen in detail by the builder of the computer. In a classical or semiclassical setting, ballistic models are unrealistic because they require the parts to be assembled with perfect precision and isolated from thermal noise, which would eventually randomize the trajectory and lead to errors. Possibly quantum effects could be exploited to prevent this undesired equipartition of the kinetic energy. Another family of models may be called Brownian computers, because they allow thermal noise to influence the trajectory so strongly that it becomes a random walk through the entire accessible (low-potential-energy) portion of the computer's configuration space. In these computers, a simple assemblage of simple parts determines a low-energy labyrinth isomorphic to the desired computation, through which the system executes its random walk, with a slight drift velocity due to a weak driving force in the direction of forward computation. In return for their greater realism, Brownian models are more dissipative than ballistic ones: the drift velocity is proportional to the driving force, and hence the energy dissipated approaches zero only in the limit of zero speed. In this regard Brownian models resemble the traditional apparatus of thermodynamic thought experiments, where reversibility is also typically only attainable in the limit of zero speed. The enzymatic apparatus of DNA replication, transcription, and translation appear to be nature's closest approach to a Brownian computer, dissipating 20–100kT per step. Both the ballistic and Brownian computers require a change in programming style: computations must be renderedlogically reversible, so that no machine state has more than one logical predecessor. In a ballistic computer, the merging of two trajectories clearly cannot be brought about by purely conservative forces; in a Brownian computer, any extensive amount of merging of computation paths would cause the Brownian computer to spend most of its time bogged down in extraneous predecessors of states on the intended path, unless an extra driving force ofkTln2 were applied (and dissipated) at each merge point. The mathematical means of rendering a computation logically reversible (e.g., creation and annihilation of a history file) will be discussed. The old Maxwell's demon problem is discussed in the light of the relation between logical and thermodynamic reversibility: the essential irreversible step, which prevents the demon from breaking the second law, is not the making of a measurement (which in principle can be done reversibly) but rather the logically irreversible act of erasing the record of one measurement to make room for the next. Converse to the rule that logically irreversible operations on data require an entropy increase elsewhere in the computer is the fact that a tape full of zeros, or one containing some computable pseudorandom sequence such as pi, has fuel value and can be made to do useful thermodynamic work as it randomizes itself. A tape containing an algorithmically random sequence lacks this ability.

1,637 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors consider a reformulation of quantum mechanics in terms of information theory, where all systems are assumed to be equivalent, there is no observer-observed distinction, and the theory describes only the information that systems have about each other.

Abstract: I suggest that the common unease with taking quantum mechanics as a fundamental description of nature (the “measurement problem”) could derive from the use of an incorrect notion, as the unease with the Lorentz transformations before Einstein derived from the notion of observer-independent time. I suggest that this incorrect notion that generates the unease with quantum mechanics is the notion of “observer-independent state” of a system, or “observer-independent values of physical quantities.” I reformulate the problem of the “interpretation of quantum mechanics” as the problem of deriving the formalism from a set of simple physical postulates. I consider a reformulation of quantum mechanics in terms of information theory. All systems are assumed to be equivalent, there is no observer-observed distinction, and the theory describes only the information that systems have about each other; nevertheless, the theory is complete.

887 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, Stasheff et al. introduced the Lie algebra of closed string theory and proved that the full Fock complex of the theory is a Lie algebra, with the BRST diﬁerential Q.

Abstract: UNC-MATH-92/2originally April 27, 1990, revised September 24, 1992INTRODUCTION TO SH LIE ALGEBRAS FOR PHYSICISTSTom LadaJim StasheffMuch of point particle physics can be described in terms of Lie algebras andtheir representations. Closed string ﬁeld theory, on the other hand, leads to ageneralization of Lie algebra which arose naturally within mathematics in the studyof deformations of algebraic structures [SS]. It also appeared in work on higherspin particles [BBvD]. Representation theoretic analogs arose in the mathematicalanalysis of the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky approach to constrained Hamiltonians[S6].The sh Lie algebra of closed string ﬁeld theory [SZ], [KKS], [K], [Wies], [WZ],[Z] is deﬁned on the full Fock complex of the theory, with the BRST diﬀerential Q.Following Zwiebach [Z], we stipulate that the string ﬁelds B

784 citations