Institution

# IBM

Company•Armonk, New York, United States•

About: IBM is a company organization based out in Armonk, New York, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Layer (electronics) & Cache. The organization has 134567 authors who have published 253905 publications receiving 7458795 citations. The organization is also known as: International Business Machines Corporation & Big Blue.

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: An approach for electronic structure calculations is described that generalizes both the pseudopotential method and the linear augmented-plane-wave (LAPW) method in a natural way and can be used to treat first-row and transition-metal elements with affordable effort and provides access to the full wave function.

Abstract: An approach for electronic structure calculations is described that generalizes both the pseudopotential method and the linear augmented-plane-wave (LAPW) method in a natural way. The method allows high-quality first-principles molecular-dynamics calculations to be performed using the original fictitious Lagrangian approach of Car and Parrinello. Like the LAPW method it can be used to treat first-row and transition-metal elements with affordable effort and provides access to the full wave function. The augmentation procedure is generalized in that partial-wave expansions are not determined by the value and the derivative of the envelope function at some muffin-tin radius, but rather by the overlap with localized projector functions. The pseudopotential approach based on generalized separable pseudopotentials can be regained by a simple approximation.

61,450 citations

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01 Jan 1991

TL;DR: The author examines the role of entropy, inequality, and randomness in the design of codes and the construction of codes in the rapidly changing environment.

Abstract: Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. Acknowledgments for the Second Edition. Acknowledgments for the First Edition. 1. Introduction and Preview. 1.1 Preview of the Book. 2. Entropy, Relative Entropy, and Mutual Information. 2.1 Entropy. 2.2 Joint Entropy and Conditional Entropy. 2.3 Relative Entropy and Mutual Information. 2.4 Relationship Between Entropy and Mutual Information. 2.5 Chain Rules for Entropy, Relative Entropy, and Mutual Information. 2.6 Jensen's Inequality and Its Consequences. 2.7 Log Sum Inequality and Its Applications. 2.8 Data-Processing Inequality. 2.9 Sufficient Statistics. 2.10 Fano's Inequality. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 3. Asymptotic Equipartition Property. 3.1 Asymptotic Equipartition Property Theorem. 3.2 Consequences of the AEP: Data Compression. 3.3 High-Probability Sets and the Typical Set. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 4. Entropy Rates of a Stochastic Process. 4.1 Markov Chains. 4.2 Entropy Rate. 4.3 Example: Entropy Rate of a Random Walk on a Weighted Graph. 4.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 4.5 Functions of Markov Chains. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 5. Data Compression. 5.1 Examples of Codes. 5.2 Kraft Inequality. 5.3 Optimal Codes. 5.4 Bounds on the Optimal Code Length. 5.5 Kraft Inequality for Uniquely Decodable Codes. 5.6 Huffman Codes. 5.7 Some Comments on Huffman Codes. 5.8 Optimality of Huffman Codes. 5.9 Shannon-Fano-Elias Coding. 5.10 Competitive Optimality of the Shannon Code. 5.11 Generation of Discrete Distributions from Fair Coins. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 6. Gambling and Data Compression. 6.1 The Horse Race. 6.2 Gambling and Side Information. 6.3 Dependent Horse Races and Entropy Rate. 6.4 The Entropy of English. 6.5 Data Compression and Gambling. 6.6 Gambling Estimate of the Entropy of English. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 7. Channel Capacity. 7.1 Examples of Channel Capacity. 7.2 Symmetric Channels. 7.3 Properties of Channel Capacity. 7.4 Preview of the Channel Coding Theorem. 7.5 Definitions. 7.6 Jointly Typical Sequences. 7.7 Channel Coding Theorem. 7.8 Zero-Error Codes. 7.9 Fano's Inequality and the Converse to the Coding Theorem. 7.10 Equality in the Converse to the Channel Coding Theorem. 7.11 Hamming Codes. 7.12 Feedback Capacity. 7.13 Source-Channel Separation Theorem. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 8. Differential Entropy. 8.1 Definitions. 8.2 AEP for Continuous Random Variables. 8.3 Relation of Differential Entropy to Discrete Entropy. 8.4 Joint and Conditional Differential Entropy. 8.5 Relative Entropy and Mutual Information. 8.6 Properties of Differential Entropy, Relative Entropy, and Mutual Information. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 9. Gaussian Channel. 9.1 Gaussian Channel: Definitions. 9.2 Converse to the Coding Theorem for Gaussian Channels. 9.3 Bandlimited Channels. 9.4 Parallel Gaussian Channels. 9.5 Channels with Colored Gaussian Noise. 9.6 Gaussian Channels with Feedback. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 10. Rate Distortion Theory. 10.1 Quantization. 10.2 Definitions. 10.3 Calculation of the Rate Distortion Function. 10.4 Converse to the Rate Distortion Theorem. 10.5 Achievability of the Rate Distortion Function. 10.6 Strongly Typical Sequences and Rate Distortion. 10.7 Characterization of the Rate Distortion Function. 10.8 Computation of Channel Capacity and the Rate Distortion Function. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 11. Information Theory and Statistics. 11.1 Method of Types. 11.2 Law of Large Numbers. 11.3 Universal Source Coding. 11.4 Large Deviation Theory. 11.5 Examples of Sanov's Theorem. 11.6 Conditional Limit Theorem. 11.7 Hypothesis Testing. 11.8 Chernoff-Stein Lemma. 11.9 Chernoff Information. 11.10 Fisher Information and the Cram-er-Rao Inequality. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 12. Maximum Entropy. 12.1 Maximum Entropy Distributions. 12.2 Examples. 12.3 Anomalous Maximum Entropy Problem. 12.4 Spectrum Estimation. 12.5 Entropy Rates of a Gaussian Process. 12.6 Burg's Maximum Entropy Theorem. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 13. Universal Source Coding. 13.1 Universal Codes and Channel Capacity. 13.2 Universal Coding for Binary Sequences. 13.3 Arithmetic Coding. 13.4 Lempel-Ziv Coding. 13.5 Optimality of Lempel-Ziv Algorithms. Compression. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 14. Kolmogorov Complexity. 14.1 Models of Computation. 14.2 Kolmogorov Complexity: Definitions and Examples. 14.3 Kolmogorov Complexity and Entropy. 14.4 Kolmogorov Complexity of Integers. 14.5 Algorithmically Random and Incompressible Sequences. 14.6 Universal Probability. 14.7 Kolmogorov complexity. 14.9 Universal Gambling. 14.10 Occam's Razor. 14.11 Kolmogorov Complexity and Universal Probability. 14.12 Kolmogorov Sufficient Statistic. 14.13 Minimum Description Length Principle. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 15. Network Information Theory. 15.1 Gaussian Multiple-User Channels. 15.2 Jointly Typical Sequences. 15.3 Multiple-Access Channel. 15.4 Encoding of Correlated Sources. 15.5 Duality Between Slepian-Wolf Encoding and Multiple-Access Channels. 15.6 Broadcast Channel. 15.7 Relay Channel. 15.8 Source Coding with Side Information. 15.9 Rate Distortion with Side Information. 15.10 General Multiterminal Networks. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 16. Information Theory and Portfolio Theory. 16.1 The Stock Market: Some Definitions. 16.2 Kuhn-Tucker Characterization of the Log-Optimal Portfolio. 16.3 Asymptotic Optimality of the Log-Optimal Portfolio. 16.4 Side Information and the Growth Rate. 16.5 Investment in Stationary Markets. 16.6 Competitive Optimality of the Log-Optimal Portfolio. 16.7 Universal Portfolios. 16.8 Shannon-McMillan-Breiman Theorem (General AEP). Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 17. Inequalities in Information Theory. 17.1 Basic Inequalities of Information Theory. 17.2 Differential Entropy. 17.3 Bounds on Entropy and Relative Entropy. 17.4 Inequalities for Types. 17.5 Combinatorial Bounds on Entropy. 17.6 Entropy Rates of Subsets. 17.7 Entropy and Fisher Information. 17.8 Entropy Power Inequality and Brunn-Minkowski Inequality. 17.9 Inequalities for Determinants. 17.10 Inequalities for Ratios of Determinants. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. Bibliography. List of Symbols. Index.

45,034 citations

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TL;DR: There is a deep and useful connection between statistical mechanics and multivariate or combinatorial optimization (finding the minimum of a given function depending on many parameters), and a detailed analogy with annealing in solids provides a framework for optimization of very large and complex systems.

Abstract: There is a deep and useful connection between statistical mechanics (the behavior of systems with many degrees of freedom in thermal equilibrium at a finite temperature) and multivariate or combinatorial optimization (finding the minimum of a given function depending on many parameters). A detailed analogy with annealing in solids provides a framework for optimization of the properties of very large and complex systems. This connection to statistical mechanics exposes new information and provides an unfamiliar perspective on traditional optimization problems and methods.

41,772 citations

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01 Jan 1994TL;DR: The book is an introduction to the idea of design patterns in software engineering, and a catalog of twenty-three common patterns, which most experienced OOP designers will find out they've known about patterns all along.

Abstract: The book is an introduction to the idea of design patterns in software engineering, and a catalog of twenty-three common patterns. The nice thing is, most experienced OOP designers will find out they've known about patterns all along. It's just that they've never considered them as such, or tried to centralize the idea behind a given pattern so that it will be easily reusable.

22,762 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: This paper proposed a method of automatic machine translation evaluation that is quick, inexpensive, and language-independent, that correlates highly with human evaluation, and that has little marginal cost per run.

Abstract: Human evaluations of machine translation are extensive but expensive. Human evaluations can take months to finish and involve human labor that can not be reused. We propose a method of automatic machine translation evaluation that is quick, inexpensive, and language-independent, that correlates highly with human evaluation, and that has little marginal cost per run. We present this method as an automated understudy to skilled human judges which substitutes for them when there is need for quick or frequent evaluations.

21,126 citations

##### Authors

Showing all 134658 results

Name | H-index | Papers | Citations |
---|---|---|---|

Zhong Lin Wang | 245 | 2529 | 259003 |

Anil K. Jain | 183 | 1016 | 192151 |

Hyun-Chul Kim | 176 | 4076 | 183227 |

Rodney S. Ruoff | 164 | 666 | 194902 |

Tobin J. Marks | 159 | 1621 | 111604 |

Jean M. J. Fréchet | 154 | 726 | 90295 |

Albert-László Barabási | 152 | 438 | 200119 |

György Buzsáki | 150 | 446 | 96433 |

Stanislas Dehaene | 149 | 456 | 86539 |

Philip S. Yu | 148 | 1914 | 107374 |

James M. Tour | 143 | 859 | 91364 |

Thomas P. Russell | 141 | 1012 | 80055 |

Naomi J. Halas | 140 | 435 | 82040 |

Steven G. Louie | 137 | 777 | 88794 |

Daphne Koller | 135 | 367 | 71073 |