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Showing papers in "Kybernetes in 2000"



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Introduction to statistical pattern recognition and nonlinear discriminant analysis - statistical methods.
Abstract: Introduction to statistical pattern recognition * Estimation * Density estimation * Linear discriminant analysis * Nonlinear discriminant analysis - neural networks * Nonlinear discriminant analysis - statistical methods * Classification trees * Feature selection and extraction * Clustering * Additional topics * Measures of dissimilarity * Parameter estimation * Linear algebra * Data * Probability theory.

2,082 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a general, more exact definition of system is proposed, which ensures that parts of the system should not be isolated from other parts and is used to define some central systems theory concepts.
Abstract: Among the several definitions of system that exist, there are some that appear more commonly than others, although in slightly different shapes It is argued that these definitions are not exclusive enough, ie things which are not systems could be regarded as systems, according to these definitions At the same time, there are definitions which are more specific but according to which some kinds of systems would not be systems Using the underlying assumptions of many authors, a general, more exact definition of system is proposed Central to the definition is to ensure that parts of the system should not be isolated from other parts This definition is used to define some central systems theory concepts

261 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Reading this book with the PDF intelligent systems architecture design and control will let you know more things.
Abstract: From the Publisher: A cutting-edge, multidisciplinary framework for intelligent systems While intelligence is a difficult concept to comprehend, research into its mechanisms and functions is rapidly exploding in both biological and artificial systems. This book introduces an original model of intelligent systems, integrating knowledge from diverse sources and developing a general theory that can be used for the analysis of all kinds of highly complex systems, from whole economies to integrated manufacturing. Intelligence as a computational phenomenon dwells upon grouping, focusing attention, and combinatorial search as its fundamental operators. In this groundbreaking work, Alex Meystel and James Albus, two of the foremost authorities in the field, draw on two decades of testing the theory in robots and other smart machines. (Dr. Meystel developed an autonomous Dune-Buggy in 1983—1987; Dr. Albus’s work forms the basis for the control system used in the Army Demo III Experimental Unmanned Ground Vehicle program, 1997—present.) Special coverage of the NIST-RCS (Real-time Control System) model is also featured in this liberally illustrated and clearly written book. Focusing on intelligence as a computational phenomenon with a multiresolutional architecture, Intelligent Systems: Architecture, Design, and Control promises to dramatically influence future research and development in intelligence worldwide. It is a one-of-a-kind resource for scientists, engineers, and anyone wishing to explore the contemporary theory and tools of computational intelligence.

207 citations




Journal ArticleDOI

81 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Beer’s viable system model provides an excellent structure for knowledge management and is an excellent model for addressing the organization as a whole.
Abstract: Knowledge management will only realize its full potential if it addresses the organization as a whole. Beer’s viable system model provides an excellent structure for this.

61 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Some visible evidences of how everyday language interpretation and law making expertise are closely rooted in the same highly inventive cognitive process, abduction are presented.
Abstract: The complexity of any given cognitive phenomenon, such as “scientific discovery”, “technical expertise”, or “natural language understanding”, requires a multidisciplinary approach. Presents, within the framework of such an approach, some visible evidences of how these very different phenomena are closely rooted in the same highly inventive cognitive process, abduction. These evidences will be provided out of examples from both everyday language interpretation and law making expertise.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Books, as a source that may involve the facts, opinion, literature, religion, and many others are the great friends to join with.
Abstract: New updated! The latest book from a very famous author finally comes out. Book of object recognition in man monkey and machine, as an amazing reference becomes what you need to get. What's for is this book? Are you still thinking for what the book is? Well, this is what you probably will get. You should have made proper choices for your better life. Book, as a source that may involve the facts, opinion, literature, religion, and many others are the great friends to join with.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the systems domain, there has been a great deal of exploration into methods that create information and the creation of knowledge as discussed by the authors, but methodological exploration into knowledge creation is less well developed.
Abstract: Organisations experience complex situations that affect their ability to survive in the longer term. Complex situations are full of uncertainty and lack of knowledge and clarity. It is through the manifestation of information and the creation of knowledge that complexity can be addressed, thus affording organisations the possibility of greater viability. Information is manifested through structured methods of inquiry, and in the systems domain there has been a great deal of exploration into methods that create information. However, methodological exploration into the creation of knowledge is less well developed. One knowledge creation cycle by Nonaka and Takeuchi operates a constructivist process through a positivist structure. A different critical approach for knowledge creation comes from viable systems that are not susceptible to this schizophrenia.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that this production requires more than self‐organisation, it requires also the participants’ awareness of the processes grounding their purposes and values in social reality and the use of this awareness to steer their recurrent interactions towards the production of a desirable social system.
Abstract: Social systems are produced by people’s interactions. They are by and large the outcome of self‐organising processes, which often produce undesirable properties like corruption, violence and other forms of social malaise. Yet, we want transparent, fair and effective social systems. Explores some of the issues involved in the production of desirable social systems. It is argued that this production requires more than self‐organisation, it requires also the participants’ awareness of the processes grounding their purposes and values in social reality and the use of this awareness to steer their recurrent interactions towards the production of a desirable social system. This is called a process of self‐construction. Understanding this process requires clarifying the role of organisation in the transformation of collectives into social systems. In the end, more than clarification, this paper offers a research agenda.


Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This study demonstrates how a dynamical system can be modelled by fuzzy linguistic rules compared to the classical differential equations approach.
Abstract: Proposes an application of fuzzy set theory to model epidemiological problems. Fuzzy logic has been revealed as a powerful predictive tool in the epidemiology of infectious diseases and some ideas are presented on how this could be done. This work presents an attempt to model the dynamics of rabies among a population of partially vaccinated dogs. This study demonstrates how a dynamical system can be modelled by fuzzy linguistic rules compared to the classical differential equations approach. The results are very encouraging and the approach through a more complex dynamical system is discussed in the final section.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explain the inevitability of human specialisation, which tends to be accompanied by a lack of cooperation, especially of an interdisciplinary nature, by associating it with the practice of entrepreneurial management.
Abstract: Holism is a familiar concept, but it lacks a coherent definition in either theory or practice. This impedes common understanding and realistic observation and action. At the heart of the problem is the inevitability of human specialisation, which tends to be accompanied by a lack of cooperation, especially of an interdisciplinary nature. False holism may result in unpleasant surprises due to oversights. People who are able to avoid them tend to employ, even though tacitly, the law of requisite holism. This article seeks to explain this phenomenon by associating it with the practice of entrepreneurial management.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The gains and loses of employing the non‐dimensionalization method developed in the quantitative analysis system of the first push are analyzed and the epistemological failures of pure quantification, linearization, and formal logic analysis are considered.
Abstract: Based on the summary and analysis of the particle dynamics, developed in the past 300 years, and of fundamental properties of unevenness of natural materials, we propose the opinion of the second stir. We analyze the gains and loses of employing the non‐dimensionalization method developed in the quantitative analysis system of the first push. Combined with some theoretical models, we also consider the epistemological failures of pure quantification, linearization, and formal logic analysis.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this work is to give a very large class of functions generating α ‐dense curves in a hyper‐rectangle of Rn to reduce transformation and global optimization techniques called Alienor.
Abstract: The reducing transformation and global optimization technique called Alienor has been developed in the 1980s by Cherruault and Guillez. These methods are based on the approximating properties of α ‐dense curves. The aim of this work is to give a very large class of functions generating α ‐dense curves in a hyper‐rectangle of Rn.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the Adomian decomposition method and provide a new proof for the evaluation of the Abbaoui-Cherruault numbers, and demonstrate an application to the truncation error evaluation and applies the presented results to a microchip laser problem.
Abstract: Describes the Adomian decomposition method and provides a new proof for the evaluation of the Abbaoui‐Cherruault numbers. Demonstrates a new result for Bell polynominals and establishes and proves a new norm bound for Adomian polynominals. Demonstrates an application to the truncation error evaluation and applies the presented results to a microchip lasers problem.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Aims to investigate the causative factors and clinical applicability of spontaneous regression of malignant tumours without treatment, a really paradoxical phenomenon with many therapeutic potentialities and elucidates a novel therapeutic approach of multi‐modal hyper‐fluctuation utilizing radiotherapeutic hyper‐fractionation, temperature and immune‐status.
Abstract: Aims to investigate the causative factors and clinical applicability of spontaneous regression of malignant tumours without treatment, a really paradoxical phenomenon with many therapeutic potentialities. Analyses past cases to find that the commonest cause is a preceding episode of high fever‐induced thermal fluctuation which produces fluctuation of biochemical/immunological parameters. Using Prigogine‐Glansdorff‐Langevin stability theory and biocybernetic principles, develops the theoretical foundation of a tumour’s self‐control, homeostasis and regression induced by thermal, radiation or oxygenation fluctuations. Derives a threshold condition of perturbations for producing regression. Presents some striking confirmation of such fluctuation‐induced regression in Ewing tumour, Clear cell cancer and Lewis lung carcinoma. Using experimental data on patients, elucidates a novel therapeutic approach of multi‐modal hyper‐fluctuation utilizing radiotherapeutic hyper‐fractionation, temperature and immune‐status.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that by restarting a static expert system periodically it is possible to cope with dynamic environments, and the resulting dynamic expert system never stops, occasionally interrogating the user if it suspects that some of the previously entered data are obsolete.
Abstract: Introduces the notion of a dynamic expert system. Shows that by restarting a static expert system periodically it is possible to cope with dynamic environments. This quasi‐static approach to dynamics is suitable if the environment is changing slowly enough in comparison with the inference engine operation and the user reaction time. Implementation of this scheme in “pure” shell meets no difficulties. However, in practice some problems may occur due to the side‐effects in rules and attached procedures. These problems and their relation to classical AI issues are considered in detail. The system was applied to the task of seismology forecast, which contains dynamical factors of both a precise and a heuristic nature. The resulting dynamic expert system never stops, occasionally interrogating the user if it suspects that some of the previously entered data are obsolete. In this sense the computer system behaves as a “live creature”.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Both from the point of view of ontology and that of epistemology the cybernetic approach now enables computer technology to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) and expert system (ES) for knowledge based instrumentation for diagnostics and therapy planning.
Abstract: The cybernetic approach differs significantly from the conventional reductionist methods of natural and biological sciences. Norbert Wiener established the theory of cybernetics as a science of control and communication process in living beings (human and animals) and machines. Dutta Majumder in his Norbert Wiener Award winning paper extended the approach to include integrated complex human machine systems and functions with general systems theory as a unitary science laying the mathematical foundation for unifying observing systems, observed systems and the act of observing as indicated in von Foerster’s concept of second‐order cybernetics. Both from the point of view of ontology and that of epistemology the cybernetic approach now enables computer technology to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) and expert system (ES) for knowledge based instrumentation for diagnostics and therapy planning. Presents the results of a project for development of a knowledge based framework for combining different modalities of medical image processing such as CT, MR(T1), MR(T2), SPECT, PET, USG etc. whichever is relevant for particular pathological investigation for diagnostics and therapeutic planning. Experiments were conducted with (a) Alzheimer’s patient data and (b) detection and grading of malignancy with oncological data for the cancer screening system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is considered that in ecosystem, landscape and global ecology, an energetics reading of ecological systems is an expression of a cybernetic, systemic and holistic approach.
Abstract: Considers that in ecosystem, landscape and global ecology, an energetics reading of ecological systems is an expression of a cybernetic, systemic and holistic approach. In ecosystem ecology, the Odumian paradigm emphasizes the concept of emergence, but it has not been accompanied by the creation of a method that fully respects the complexity of the objects studied. In landscape ecology, although the emergentist, multi‐level, triadic methodology of J.K. Feibleman and D.T. Campbell has gained acceptance, the importance of emergent properties is still undervalued. In global ecology, the Gaia hypothesis is an expression of an organicist metaphor, while the emergentist terminology used is incongruent with the underlying physicalist cybernetics. More generally, an analytico‐additional methodology and the reduction of the properties of ecosystems to the laws of physical chemistry render purely formal any assertion about the emergentist and holistic nature of the ecological systems studied.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The significance of computer‐mediated communication for the deaf is emphasised, namely that interaction can be both less stressful and faster, thereby reducing the isolation many feel due to the physical constraints imposed by their deafness.
Abstract: Discusses the potential of computer‐mediated communication to reduce the social isolation experienced by many deaf and hard‐of‐hearing individuals. Communication presents significant problems for this group of people, some of which can be bridged by communicating via the Internet or e‐mail. deaf Internet users were surveyed by use of a questionnaire. Their opinions, summarised in this paper, emphasise the significance of computer‐mediated communication for the deaf; namely that interaction can be both less stressful and faster, thereby reducing the isolation many feel due to the physical constraints imposed by their deafness.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Alienor method offers a powerful approximation technique for the optimization of continuous multivariable functions defined on a compact set H of Rn as mentioned in this paper, which is completed by the fact that it gave rise to the theory of space-densifying curves.
Abstract: The Alienor method offers a powerful approximation technique for the optimization of continuous multivariable functions defined on a compact set H of Rn. Its computational efficiency is completed by the fact that it gave rise to the theory of space‐densifying curves. Presents a survey of these curves, analysing their most important properties and characteristics. Finally, the concept of theoretic calculation time (t.c.t.) associated with each curve suggests an interesting geometric problem on the existence of a curve with minimal t.c.t.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The paper is concerned with static plants described by a knowledge representation in the form of relations or logical formulas with unknown parameters, and the learning algorithms consisting of step‐by‐step knowledge validation and updating have been presented for different versions.
Abstract: The paper is concerned with static plants described by a knowledge representation in the form of relations or logical formulas with unknown parameters. The learning algorithms consisting of step‐by‐step knowledge validation and updating have been presented for different versions. The theorems concerning the convergence of the learning processes have been given for the open‐loop and closed‐loop learning decision‐making system. The extension for the case with uncertain observations has been suggested. Simple examples illustrate the presented approach.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The estimated slopes in the regression equations obtained in the present work are compared with the results of previous papers where Mandelbrot’s law was applied and comparisons between them are shown.
Abstract: It is known that a mathematical ecological model and, in general, a particular methodology of modelling, can be considered a literary text written in a formal mathematical language. In this context, stylometric mathematical laws such as Zipf’s (range‐frequency and number‐frequency) can be applied to obtain information parameters in different semantic levels within the same model. Adapts several of these laws and introduces new elements, lexic units, operating and separating units, to carry out several statistical analyses upon two models or texts. The estimated slopes in the regression equations obtained in the present work are compared with the results of previous papers where Mandelbrot’s law was applied and comparisons between them are shown.