Showing papers in "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report in 2004"
TL;DR: This report updates the 2000 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents with new or updated information regarding the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination and the 2001-2002 trivalent vaccine virus strains.
Abstract: This report updates the 2002 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (CDC. Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2002;51 [No. RR-3]:1-31). The 2003 recommendations include new or updated information regarding 1) the timing of influenza vaccination by age and risk group; 2) influenza vaccine for children aged 6-23 months; 3) the 2003-2004 trivalent inactivated vaccine virus strains: A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like, and B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like antigens (for the A/Moscow/10/99 [H3N2]-like antigen, manufacturers will use the antigenically equivalent A/Panama/2007/99 [H3N2] virus, and for the B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like antigen, manufacturers will use either B/Hong Kong/330/2001 or the antigenically equivalent B/Hong Kong/1434/2002); 4) availability of certain influenza vaccine doses with reduced thimerosal content, including single 0.25 mL-dose syringes; and 5) manufacturers of influenza vaccine for the U.S. market. Although the optimal time to vaccinate against influenza is October and November, vaccination in December and later continues to be strongly recommended A link to this report and other information regarding influenza can be accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/fluvirus.htm.
TL;DR: The new guidelines are designed to reduce the incidence of pneumonia and other severe, acute lower respiratory tract infections in acute-care hospitals and in other health-care settings (e.g., ambulatory and longterm care institutions) and other facilities where health care is provided.
Abstract: This report updates, expands, and replaces the previously published CDC "Guideline for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia". The new guidelines are designed to reduce the incidence of pneumonia and other severe, acute lower respiratory tract infections in acute-care hospitals and in other health-care settings (e.g., ambulatory and long-term care institutions) and other facilities where health care is provided. Among the changes in the recommendations to prevent bacterial pneumonia, especially ventilator-associated pneumonia, are the preferential use of oro-tracheal rather than naso-tracheal tubes in patients who receive mechanically assisted ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation to reduce the need for and duration of endotracheal intubation, changing the breathing circuits of ventilators when they malfunction or are visibly contaminated, and (when feasible) the use of an endotracheal tube with a dorsal lumen to allow drainage of respiratory secretions; no recommendations were made about the use of sucralfate, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, or antacids for stress-bleeding prophylaxis. For prevention of health-care--associated Legionnaires disease, the changes include maintaining potable hot water at temperatures not suitable for amplification of Legionella spp., considering routine culturing of water samples from the potable water system of a facility's organ-transplant unit when it is done as part of the facility's comprehensive program to prevent and control health-care--associated Legionnaires disease, and initiating an investigation for the source of Legionella spp. when one definite or one possible case of laboratory-confirmed health-care--associated Legionnaires disease is identified in an inpatient hemopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipient or in two or more HSCT recipients who had visited an outpatient HSCT unit during all or part of the 2-10 day period before illness onset. In the section on aspergillosis, the revised recommendations include the use of a room with high-efficiency particulate air filters rather than laminar airflow as the protective environment for allogeneic HSCT recipients and the use of high-efficiency respiratory-protection devices (e.g., N95 respirators) by severely immunocompromised patients when they leave their rooms when dust-generating activities are ongoing in the facility. In the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) section, the new recommendation is to determine, on a case-by-case basis, whether to administer monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) to certain infants and children aged <24 months who were born prematurely and are at high risk for RSV infection. In the section on influenza, the new recommendations include the addition of oseltamivir (to amantadine and rimantadine) for prophylaxis of all patients without influenza illness and oseltamivir and zanamivir (to amantadine and rimantadine) as treatment for patients who are acutely ill with influenza in a unit where an influenza outbreak is recognized. In addition to the revised recommendations, the guideline contains new sections on pertussis and lower respiratory tract infections caused by adenovirus and human parainfluenza viruses and refers readers to the source of updated information about prevention and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome.
TL;DR: Results from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrate that the majority of risk behaviors associated with these two causes of death are initiated during adolescence, and education and health officials at national, state, and local levels are using these data to improve policies and programs to reduce priority health-risk behaviors among youth.
Abstract: PROBLEM/CONDITION: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. REPORTING PERIOD: This report covers data collected during February-December 2003. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults--behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity--plus overweight. YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as state and local school-based surveys conducted by education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 32 state surveys, and 18 local surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12 during February-December 2003. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: In the United States, 70.8% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrated that, during the 30 days preceding the survey, numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes: 30.2% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; 17.1% had carried a weapon; 44.9% had drunk alcohol; and 22.4% had used marijuana. In addition, during the 12 months preceding the survey, 33.0% of high school students had been in a physical fight, and 8.5% had attempted suicide. Substantial morbidity and social problems among young persons also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. In 2003, 46.7% of high school students had ever had sexual intercourse; 37% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 3.2% had ever injected an illegal drug. Among adults aged > or =25 years, 62.9% of all deaths results from two causes: cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Results from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrate that the majority of risk behaviors associated with these two causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 2003, a total of 21.9% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey; 78% had not eaten > or =5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables during the 7 days preceding the survey; 33.4% had participated in an insufficient amount of physical activity; and 13.5% were overweight. ACTIONS TAKEN: YRBSS data are being used to measure progress toward achieving 15 national health objectives for 2010 and three of the 10 leading health indicators. In addition, education and health officials at national, state, and local levels are using these YRBSS data to improve policies and programs to reduce priority health-risk behaviors among youth.
TL;DR: The background and rationale for YRBSS is described and a detailed description of the methodologic features of the system is included, including its questionnaire; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols'; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality.
Abstract: CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) to monitor six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth--behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity--plus overweight. These risk behaviors contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as state, territorial, and local school-based surveys conducted by education and health agencies. In these surveys, conducted biennially since 1991, representative samples of students in grades 9--12 are drawn. In 2003, a total of 15,214 students completed the national survey, and 32 states and 20 school districts also obtained data representative of their jurisdiction. Although multiple publications have described certain methodologic features of YRBSS, no report has included a comprehensive description of the system and its methodology. This report describes the background and rationale for YRBSS and includes a detailed description of the methodologic features of the system, including its questionnaire; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. YRBSS is evolving to meet the needs of CDC and other users of the data.
TL;DR: The number of recreational water-associated outbreaks has increased significantly during this period and could reflect improved surveillance and reporting at the local and state level, a true increase in the number of WBDOs, or a combination of these factors.
Abstract: Problem/condition Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs). This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of waterborne disease outbreaks on persons in the United States. Reporting period covered This summary includes data on WBDOs associated with drinking water that occurred during January 2001-December 2002 and on three previously unreported outbreaks that occurred during 2000. Description of system Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and the Freely Associated States are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating WBDOs and voluntarily reporting them to CDC on a standard form. The surveillance system includes data for outbreaks associated with both drinking water and recreational water; only outbreaks associated with drinking water are reported in this summary. Results During 2001-2002, a total of 31 WBDOs associated with drinking water were reported by 19 states. These 31 outbreaks caused illness among an estimated 1,020 persons and were linked to seven deaths. The microbe or chemical that caused the outbreak was identified for 24 (77.4%) of the 31 outbreaks. Of the 24 identified outbreaks, 19 (79.2%) were associated with pathogens, and five (20.8%) were associated with acute chemical poisonings. Five outbreaks were caused by norovirus, five by parasites, and three by non-Legionella bacteria. All seven outbreaks involving acute gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology were suspected of having an infectious cause. For the first time, this MMWR Surveillance Summary includes drinking water-associated outbreaks of Legionnaires disease (LD); six outbreaks of LD occurred during 2001-2002. Of the 25 non-Legionella associated outbreaks, 23 (92.0%) were reported in systems that used groundwater sources; nine (39.1%) of these 23 groundwater outbreaks were associated with private noncommunity wells that were not regulated by EPA. Interpretation The number of drinking water-associated outbreaks decreased from 39 during 1999-2000 to 31 during 2001-2002. Two (8.0%) outbreaks associated with surface water occurred during 2001-2002; neither was associated with consumption of untreated water. The number of outbreaks associated with groundwater sources decreased from 28 during 1999-2000 to 23 during 2001-2002; however, the proportion of such outbreaks increased from 73.7% to 92.0%. The number of outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater decreased from 17 (44.7%) during 1999-2000 to 10 (40.0%) during 2001-2002. Outbreaks associated with private, unregulated wells remained relatively stable, although more outbreaks involving private, treated wells were reported during 2001-2002. Because the only groundwater systems that are required to disinfect their water supplies are public systems under the influence of surface water, these findings support EPA's development of a groundwater rule that specifies when corrective action (including disinfection) is required. Public health action CDC and EPA use surveillance data 1) to identify the types of water systems, their deficiencies, and the etiologic agents associated with outbreaks and 2) to evaluate the adequacy of technologies for providing safe drinking water. Surveillance data are used also to establish research priorities, which can lead to improved water-quality regulations. CDC and EPA recently completed epidemiologic studies that assess the level of waterborne illness attributable to municipal drinking water in nonoutbreak conditions. The decrease in outbreaks in surface water systems is attributable primarily to implementation of provisions of EPA rules enacted since the late 1980s. Rules under development by EPA are expected to protect the public further from microbial contaminants while addressing risk tradeoffs of disinfection byproducts in drinking water.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a framework for evaluating public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks, including traditional disease reporting, specialized analytic routines for aberration detection, or surveillance using early indicators of disease outbreaks such as syndromic surveillance.
Abstract: The threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks has drawn attention to public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks. State and local health departments are enhancing existing surveillance systems and developing new systems to better detect outbreaks through public health surveillance. However, information is limited about the usefulness of surveillance systems for outbreak detection or the best ways to support this function. This report supplements previous guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Use of this framework is intended to improve decision-making regarding the implementation of surveillance for outbreak detection. Use of a standardized evaluation methodology, including description of system design and operation, also will enhance the exchange of information regarding methods to improve early detection of outbreaks. The framework directs particular attention to the measurement of timeliness and validity for outbreak detection. The evaluation framework is designed to support assessment and description of all surveillance approaches to early detection, whether through traditional disease reporting, specialized analytic routines for aberration detection, or surveillance using early indicators of disease outbreaks, such as syndromic surveillance.
TL;DR: A summary report of fatal and nonfatal injuries that combines death data from National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and non-fatal injury data from NEISS-AIP is presented in this article.
Abstract: PROBLEM/CONDITION: Each year in the United States, an estimated one in six residents requires medical treatment for an injury, and an estimated one in 10 residents visits a hospital emergency department (ED) for treatment of a nonfatal injury. This report summarizes national data on fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States for 2001, by age; sex; mechanism, intent, and type of injury; and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: January-December 2001. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Description of the System: Fatal injury data are derived from CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and include information obtained from official death certificates throughout the United States. Nonfatal injury data, other than gunshot injuries, are from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), a national stratified probability sample of 66 U.S. hospital EDs. Nonfatal firearm and BB/pellet gunshot injury data are from CDC's Firearm Injury Surveillance Study, being conducted by using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a national stratified probability sample of 100 U.S. hospital EDs. RESULTS: In 2001, approximately 157,078 persons in the United States (age-adjusted injury death rate: 54.9/100,000 population; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 54.6-55.2/100,000) died from an injury, and an estimated 29,721,821 persons with nonfatal injuries (age-adjusted nonfatal injury rate: 10404.3/100,000; 95% CI = 10074.9-10733.7/ 100,000) were treated in U.S. hospital EDs. The overall injury-related case-fatality rate (CFR) was 0.53%, but CFRs varied substantially by age (rates for older persons were higher than rates for younger persons); sex (rates were higher for males than females); intent (rates were higher for self-harm-related than for assault and unintentional injuries); and mechanism (rates were highest for drowning, suffocation/inhalation, and firearm-related injury). Overall, fatal and nonfatal injury rates were higher for males than females and disproportionately affected younger and older persons. For fatal injuries, 101,537 (64.6%) were unintentional, and 51,326 (32.7%) were violence-related, including homicides, legal intervention, and suicide. For nonfatal injuries, 27,551,362 (92.7%) were unintentional, and 2,155,912 (7.3%) were violence-related, including assaults, legal intervention, and self-harm. Overall, the leading cause of fatal injury was unintentional motor-vehicle-occupant injuries. The leading cause of nonfatal injury was unintentional falls; however, leading causes vary substantially by sex and age. For nonfatal injuries, the majority of injured persons were treated in hospital EDs for lacerations (25.8%), strains/sprains (20.2%), and contusions/abrasions (18.3%); the majority of injuries were to the head/neck region (29.5%) and the extremities (47.9%). Overall, 5.5% of those treated for nonfatal injuries in hospital EDs were hospitalized or transferred to another facility for specialized care. INTERPRETATION: This report provides the first summary report of fatal and nonfatal injuries that combines death data from NVSS and nonfatal injury data from NEISS-AIP. These data indicate that mortality and morbidity associated with injuries affect all segments of the population, although the leading external causes of injuries vary substantially by age and sex of injured persons. Injury prevention efforts should include consideration of the substantial differences in fatal and nonfatal injury rates, CFRs, and the leading causes of unintentional and violence-related injuries, in regard to the sex and age of injured persons.
TL;DR: CDC believes that newborn screening for CF is justified, and states should consider the magnitude of benefits and costs and the need to minimize risks through careful planning and implementation, including ongoing collection and evaluation of outcome data.
Abstract: In November 2003, CDC and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation cosponsored a workshop to review the benefits and risks associated with newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF). This report describes new research findings and outlines the recommendations of the workshop. The peer-reviewed evidence presented at the workshop supports the clinical utility of newborn screening for CF. Demonstrated long-term benefits from early nutritional treatment as a result of newborn screening for CF include improved growth and, in one study, cognitive development. Other benefits might include reduced hospitalizations and improved survival. Mixed evidence has been reported for pulmonary outcomes. Newborn screening in the United States is associated with diagnosis of CF a median of 1 year earlier than symptomatic detection, which might reduce the expense and anxiety associated with workup for failure to thrive or other symptoms. Certain psychosocial risks for carrier children and their families (e.g., anxiety and misunderstanding) are associated with newborn screening. Exposure of young children to infectious agents through person-to-person transmission in clinical settings, although not an inherent risk of newborn screening, is a potential cause of harm from early detection. Involving specialists in CF care and infection control, genetic counseling, and communication can minimize these potential harms. Although screening decisions depend on a state's individual resources and priorities, on the basis of evidence of moderate benefits and low risk of harm, CDC believes that newborn screening for CF is justified. States should consider the magnitude of benefits and costs and the need to minimize risks through careful planning and implementation, including ongoing collection and evaluation of outcome data.
TL;DR: A comprehensive approach to smoking cessation that comprises educational, economic, clinical, and regulatory strategies and emphasizes reducing disparities is required to reduce further the prevalence of smoking.
Abstract: One of the national health objectives for 2010 is to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults to =12%. To assess progress toward this objective, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) sample adult core questionnaire. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2002, approximately 22.5% of adults were current smokers. Although this prevalence is slightly lower than the 22.8% prevalence among U.S. adults in 2001 and substantially lower than the 24.1% prevalence in 1998, the rate of decline has not been at a sufficient pace to achieve the 2010 national health objective. During 1983-2002, adults with household incomes below the poverty level and those with less than some college education consistently had higher smoking prevalence. A comprehensive approach to smoking cessation that comprises educational, economic, clinical, and regulatory strategies and emphasizes reducing disparities is required to reduce further the prevalence of smoking.
TL;DR: The continuous surveillance of health status in minority communities is necessary so that culturally sensitive prevention strategies can be tailored to these communities and program interventions evaluated.
Abstract: The continuous surveillance of health status in minority communities is necessary so that culturally sensitive prevention strategies can be tailored to these communities and program interventions evaluated.
TL;DR: The results indicated that leisure-time physical inactivity decreased during 1988-2002, especially after 1996, with declining trends among men and women, the majority of age groups, and themajority of racial/ethnic populations.
Abstract: Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and increased risk for chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and diabetes mellitus) and premature mortality. A national health objective for 2010 is to reduce the prevalence of no leisure-time physical activity to 20%. Women, older adults, and the majority of racial/ethnic minority populations have the greatest prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity. To examine trends in no leisure-time physical activity and further characterize them by sex, age group, and racial/ethnic population, CDC analyzed 1988-2002 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 35 states and the District of Columbia (DC). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that leisure-time physical inactivity decreased during 1988-2002, especially after 1996, with declining trends among men and women, the majority of age groups, and the majority of racial/ethnic populations. To promote further declines, state and local health departments and other organizations should adopt effective, evidence-based strategies to encourage more adults to be physically active in their leisure time.
TL;DR: A systematic assessment based on the established public health framework was applied to the growing group of PI diseases, whose diverse genetic mutations span multiple components of the immune system but all lead to increased incidence and severity of infections.
Abstract: Primary immunodeficiency (PI) diseases are a group of primarily single-gene disorders of the immune system. Approximately 100 separate PI diseases have been described, but 90% of cases. Although diverse, PI diseases share the common feature of susceptibility to infection and result in substantial morbidity and shortened life spans. Most important, prompt diagnosis and treatment can now lead to life-saving treatment and result in marked improvements in the quality and length of life for persons with PI diseases. In November 2001, a workshop was convened by CDC in Atlanta, Georgia, to discuss ways to improve health outcomes among persons with PI disease. A multidisciplinary panel of persons knowledgeable in PI diseases and public health met to identify and discuss public health strategies that can be applied to PI diseases and possibly for other genetic disorders. A systematic assessment based on the established public health framework was applied to the growing group of PI diseases, whose diverse genetic mutations span multiple components of the immune system but all lead to increased incidence and severity of infections. During the meeting, specialists in clinical immunology, public health, genetics, pediatrics, health communication, and ethics from state and federal agencies, academic centers, professional organizations, and advocacy foundations discussed the four components of the public health framework as they relate to PI diseases. These four components include 1) public health assessment (application of traditional public health methods to assess the occurrence and impact of PI diseases on communities); 2) population-based interventions (development, implementation, and evaluation of screening tests administered to newborns and clinical algorithms for early recognition of symptomatic persons to facilitate the earliest possible diagnosis and treatment for PI diseases); 3) evaluation of screening and diagnostic tools (to ensure their quality and appropriateness for identification of patients with PI diseases); and 4) communication (communication with and information dissemination to health-care providers and the public to facilitate prompt and appropriate diagnosis and intervention). The working group's deliberations focused on challenges and opportunities, priority research questions, and recommendations for future action for these four components. These recommendations, developed by workshop participants, will be useful to medical and public health professionals who are evaluating methods to increase recognition of PI diseases and other genetic disorders.
TL;DR: Assessment of changes in indoor air quality that occurred in 20 hospitality venues in western New York where smoking or indirect SHS exposure from an adjoining room was observed at baseline indicate that, on average, levels of respirable suspended particles, an accepted marker for SHS levels, decreased 84% in these venues after the law took effect.
Abstract: Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains more than 50 carcinogens. SHS exposure is responsible for an estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths and more than 35,000 coronary heart disease deaths among never smokers in the United States each year, and for lower respiratory infections, asthma, sudden infant death syndrome, and chronic ear infections among children. Even short-term exposures to SHS, such as those that might be experienced by a patron in a restaurant or bar that allows smoking, can increase the risk of experiencing an acute cardiovascular event. Although population-based data indicate declining SHS exposure in the United States over time, SHS exposure remains a common but preventable public health hazard. Policies requiring smoke-free environments are the most effective method of reducing SHS exposure. Effective July 24, 2003, New York implemented a comprehensive state law requiring almost all indoor workplaces and public places (e.g., restaurants, bars, and other hospitality venues) to be smoke-free. This report describes an assessment of changes in indoor air quality that occurred in 20 hospitality venues in western New York where smoking or indirect SHS exposure from an adjoining room was observed at baseline. The findings indicate that, on average, levels of respirable suspended particles (RSPs), an accepted marker for SHS levels, decreased 84% in these venues after the law took effect. Comprehensive clean indoor air policies can rapidly and effectively reduce SHS exposure in hospitality venues.
TL;DR: Although cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, the overall declining trend in cancer mortality demonstrates considerable progress in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment.
Abstract: Problem/condition Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and is expected to become the leading cause of death within the next decade. Considerable variation exists in cancer mortality between the sexes and among different racial/ethnic populations and geographic locations. The description of mortality data by state, sex, and race/ethnicity is essential for cancer-control researchers to target areas of need and develop programs that reduce the burden of cancer. Reporting period covered 1990-2000. Description of system Mortality data from CDC were used to calculate death rates and trends, categorized by state, sex, and race/ethnicity. Trend analyses for 1990-2000 are presented for all cancer sites combined and for the four leading cancers causing death (lung/bronchus, colorectal, prostate, and breast) categorized by state, sex, and race/ethnicity. Death rates per 100,000 population for the 10 primary cancer sites with the highest age-adjusted rates are also presented for each state and the District of Columbia by sex. For males, the 10 primary sites include lung/bronchus, prostate, colon/rectum, pancreas, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, esophagus, stomach, and urinary bladder. For females, the 10 primary sites include lung/bronchus, breast, colon/rectum, pancreas, ovary, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, brain/other nervous system, uterine corpus, and myeloma. Results For 1990-2000, cancer mortality decreased among the majority of racial/ethnic populations and geographic locations in the United States. Statistically significant decreases in mortality among all races combined occurred with lung and bronchus cancer among men (--1.7%/year); colorectal cancer among men and women (--2.0%/year and--1.7%/year, respectively); prostate cancer (--2.6%/year); and female breast cancer (--2.3%/year). For 1990-2000, cancer mortality remained stable among American Indian/Alaska Native populations. Statistically significant increases in lung and bronchus cancer mortality occurred among women of all racial/ethnic backgrounds, except among Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interpretation Although cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, the overall declining trend in cancer mortality demonstrates considerable progress in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment. Public health action More effective tobacco-cessation programs are necessary to reduce lung and bronchus cancer mortality among women and sustain the decrease in lung and bronchus cancer mortality among men. Additional programs that deter smoking initiation among adolescents are essential to ensure future decreases in lung and bronchus cancer mortality. Continued research in primary prevention, screening methods, and therapeutics is needed to further reduce disparities and improve quality of life and survival among all populations.
TL;DR: Women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant who drink during pregnancy place themselves at risk for having a child with FAS or fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and should abstain from alcohol use.
Abstract: Alcohol use during pregnancy is associated with health problems that adversely affect the mother and fetus; no level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been determined safe. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is recognized as the foremost preventable condition involving neurobehavioral and developmental abnormalities. Women who drink during pregnancy place themselves at risk for having a child with FAS or fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). To determine the alcohol consumption patterns among all women of childbearing age, including those who are pregnant or might become pregnant, CDC analyzed data for women aged 18-44 years from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. The results of that analysis indicated that approximately 10% of pregnant women used alcohol, and approximately 2% engaged in binge drinking or frequent use of alcohol. The results further indicated that more than half of women who did not use birth control (and therefore might become pregnant) reported alcohol use and 12.4% reported binge drinking. Women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant should abstain from alcohol use.
TL;DR: Culturally appropriate educational efforts are needed to inform persons in populations using traditional or folk medications of the potential health risks posed by these remedies.
Abstract: Although approximately 95% of lead poisoning among US adults results from occupational exposure (1), lead poisoning also can occur from use of traditional or folk remedies (2-5) Ayurveda is a traditional form of medicine practiced in India and other South Asian countries Ayurvedic medications can contain herbs, minerals, metals, or animal products and are made in standardized and nonstandardized formulations (2) During 2000-2003, a total of 12 cases of lead poisoning among adults in five states associated with ayurvedic medications or remedies were reported to CDC (Table) This report summarizes these 12 cases Culturally appropriate educational efforts are needed to inform persons in populations using traditional or folk medications of the potential health risks posed by these remedies TABLE Reported cases of adult lead poisoning related to ayurvedic medications, by state and selected characteristics — United States, 2000-2003 The first three cases described in this report were reported to CDC by staff at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center at Dartmouth Medical School, New Hampshire; the California Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program; and the California Department of Health Services To ascertain whether other lead poisoning cases associated with ayurvedic medicines had occurred, an alert was posted on the Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X), and findings from the cases in California were posted on the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) listserv Nine additional cases were reported by state health departments in Massachusetts, New York, and Texas (Table)
TL;DR: Health-care providers should be vigilant for LGV, especially among MSM exposed to persons from Europe, and prepared to diagnose the disease and provide appropriate treatment to patients and their exposed sex partners.
Abstract: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a systemic, sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a variety of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that rarely occurs in the United States and other industrialized countries; the prevalence of LGV is greatest in Africa, Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Caribbean countries However, in the Netherlands, which typically has fewer than five cases a year, as of September 2004, a total of 92 cases of LGV had been confirmed during the preceding 17 months among men who have sex with men (MSM) The first 13 cases, diagnosed during April-November 2003, were reported by local health authorities in Rotterdam in December 2003 An alert was sent to the Early Warning and Reporting System of the European Union and to the European Surveillance of Sexually Transmitted Infections Network (ESSTI) In April 2004, a report was made to CDC, and state and local health departments were alerted Of the 92 cases confirmed in the Netherlands, 30 occurred during 2003 and 62 during 2004 This report describes the ongoing investigation of the LGV outbreak Health-care providers should be vigilant for LGV, especially among MSM exposed to persons from Europe, and prepared to diagnose the disease and provide appropriate treatment to patients and their exposed sex partners
TL;DR: Findings highlight the importance of case-based reporting of varicella and the exclusion of patients from school until all lesions crust or fade away and a period of > or =4 years since vaccination was a risk factor for breakthrough disease.
Abstract: On November 18, 2003, the Oakland County Health Division alerted the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) to a varicella (chicken pox) outbreak in a kindergarten-third grade elementary school. On December 11, MDCH and Oakland County public health epidemiologists, with the technical assistance of CDC, conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe the outbreak, determine varicella vaccine effectiveness (VE), and examine risk factors for breakthrough disease (i.e., varicella occurring >42 days after vaccination). This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicated that 1) transmission of varicella was sustained at the school for nearly 1 month despite high vaccination coverage, 2) vaccinated patients had substantially milder disease (<50 lesions), and 3) a period of > or =4 years since vaccination was a risk factor for breakthrough disease. These findings highlight the importance of case-based reporting of varicella and the exclusion of patients from school until all lesions crust or fade away. Information about recognizing vaccinated patients with mild cases should be disseminated to health-care providers, school administrators, and parents.
TL;DR: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an on-going, state-based, telephone survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population aged >18 years that assists public health programs in evaluating and monitoring progress toward improving their community's health.
Abstract: Problem Monitoring risk behaviors for chronic diseases and participation in preventive practices are important for developing effective health education and intervention programs to prevent morbidity and mortality. Therefore, continual monitoring of these behaviors and practices at the state, city, and county levels can assist public health programs in evaluating and monitoring progress toward improving their community's health. Reporting period covered Data collected in 2002 are presented for states, selected metropolitan, and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA), and their counties. Description of the system The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an on-going, state-based, telephone survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population aged >18 years. All 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in BRFSS during 2002. Metropolitan and MMSA and their counties with >500 respondents or a minimum sample size of 19 per weighting class were included in the analyses for a total of 98 MMSA and 146 counties. Results Prevalence of high-risk behaviors for chronic diseases, awareness of certain medical conditions, and use of preventive health-care services varied substantially by state, county, and MMSA. Obesity ranged from 27.6% in West Virginia, 29.4% in Charleston, West Virginia, and 32.0% in Florence County, South Carolina, to 16.5% in Colorado, 12.8% in Bethesda-Frederick-Gaithersburg, Maryland, and 11.8% in Washington County, Rhode Island. No leisuretime physical activity ranged from 33.6% in Tennessee, 36.8% in Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, Florida, and 36.8% in Miami-Dade County, Florida to 15.0% in Washington, 13.8% in Seattle-Bellevue-Everett Washington, and 11.4% in King County, Washington. Cigarette smoking ranged from 32.6% in Kentucky, 32.8% in Youngstown-Warren- Boardman, Ohio-Pennsylvania, and 31.1% in Jefferson County, Kentucky to 16.4% in California, 13.8% in Ogden- Clearfield, Utah, and 10.9% in Davis County, Utah. Binge drinking ranged from 24.9% in Wisconsin, 26.1% in Fargo, North Dakota-Minnesota, and 25.1% Cass County, North Dakota, to 7.9% in Kentucky, 8.2% in Greensboro- High Point, North Carolina, and 6.6% in Henderson County, North Carolina. At risk for heavy drinking ranged from 8.7% in Arizona, 9.5% in Lebanon, New Hampshire-Vermont, and 11.3% in Richland County, South Carolina, to 2.8% in Utah, 1.9% in Ogden-Clearfield, Utah, and 1.7% in King County, New York. Adults who were told they had diabetes ranged from 10.2% in West Virginia, 11.1% in Charleston, West Virginia, and 11.1% in Richland, South Carolina, to 3.5% in Alaska, 2.7% in Anchorage, Alaska, and 2.4% in Weber County, Utah. Percentage of adults aged>50 years who were ever screened for colorectal cancer ranged from 64.8% in Minnesota, 67.9% in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington Minnesota-Wisconsin, and 73.6% in Ramsey County, Minnesota, to 39.2% in Hawaii, 30.7% in Kahului-Wailuku, Hawaii, and 30.7% in Maui County, Hawaii. Persons aged >65 years who had received pneumococcal vaccine ranged from 72.5% in North Dakota, 74.8% in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, Minnesota-Wisconsin, and 73.1% in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, to 47.9% in DC, 47.5% in New York-Wayne-White Plains, New York, New Jersey, and 47.9% in DC County, DC. Older adults who had received influenza vaccine ranged from 76.6% in Minnesota, 80.0% in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, Minnesota-Wisconsin, and 76.3% in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, to 57.0% in Florida, 55.8% in Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, Texas, and 56.2% in Cook County, Illinois. Interpretation BRFSS data indicate substantial variation in high-risk behaviors, participation in preventive healthcare services, and screening among U.S. adults at states and selected local areas, indicating a need for continued efforts to evaluate public health programs or policies designed to reduce morbidity and mortality. Public health actions Data from BRFSS are useful in developing and guiding public health programs and policies. Therefore, states, selected MMSA, and their counties can use BRFSS data as a tool to prevent premature morbidity and mortality among adult population and to assess progress toward national health objectives. The data indicate a continued need to develop and implement health promotion programs for targeting specific behaviors and practices and serve as a baseline for future surveillance at the local level in the United States.
TL;DR: The risk for a multiple-birth delivery was highest for women who underwent ART transfer procedures using freshly fertilized embryos from either donor eggs or from their own eggs, and an inverse relation existed between multiple- Birth risk and patient age.
Abstract: PROBLEM/CONDITION In 1996, CDC initiated data collection regarding assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures performed in the United States to determine medical center-specific pregnancy success rates, as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493, October 24, 1992). ART includes fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization and related procedures). Patients who undergo ART treatments are more likely to deliver multiple-birth infants than women who conceive naturally. Multiple births are associated with increased risk for mothers and infants (e.g., pregnancy complications, premature delivery, low-birthweight infants, and long-term disability among infants). REPORTING PERIOD 2001. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM CDC contracts with a professional society, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), to obtain data from fertility medical centers located in the United States. Since 1997, CDC has compiled data related to ART procedures. The Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System was initiated by CDC in collaboration with the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, and RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association. RESULTS In 2001, a total of 29,344 live-birth deliveries and 40,687 infants resulting from 107,587 ART procedures were reported from 384 medical centers in the United States and U.S. territories. Nationally, 80,864 (75%) of ART treatments used freshly fertilized embryos from the patient's eggs; 14,705 (14%) used thawed embryos from the patient's eggs; 8,592 (8%) used freshly fertilized embryos from donor eggs; and 3,426 (3%) used thawed embryos from donor eggs. Overall, 40% of ART procedures that progressed to the transfer stage resulted in a pregnancy; 33% resulted in a live-birth delivery (delivery of > or =1 infant); and 21% resulted in a singleton live birth. The highest live-birth rates were observed among ART procedures using freshly fertilized embryos from donor eggs (47%). The greatest numbers of ART procedures were performed among residents of California (13,124), New York (12,379), Massachusetts (8,151), Illinois (7,933), and New Jersey (6,011). These five states also reported the highest number of live-birth deliveries and infants born as a result of ART. The ratio of number of ART procedures per million population ranged from 74 in Idaho to 1,273 in Massachusetts, with a national average of 371 ART procedures started per million persons. Among ART treatments in which freshly fertilized embryos from the patient's eggs were used, substantial variation in live birth rates by patient (e.g., women aged < or =40 years) and treatment characteristics (e.g., ovulatory dysfunction, endometriosis, or unexplained infertility) was observed. The risk for a multiple-birth delivery was highest for women who underwent ART transfer procedures using freshly fertilized embryos from either donor eggs (42%) or from their own eggs (36%). Among ART transfer procedures in which the patient's own eggs were used, an inverse relation existed between multiple-birth risk and patient age. Number of embryos transferred and embryo availability (an indicator of embryo quality) were also strong predictors of multiple-birth risk. Of the 40,687 infants born, 46% were twins, and 8% were triplet and higher order multiples. The total multiple-infant birth rate was 53%. Approximately 1% of U.S. infants born in 2001 were conceived through ART. Those infants accounted for 16% of multiple births nationally. INTERPRETATION Whether an ART procedure resulted in a pregnancy and live-birth delivery varied according to different patient and treatment factors. ART poses a major risk for multiple births. This risk varied according to the patient's age, the type of ART procedure performed, the number of embryos transferred, and embryo availability (an indicator of embryo quality). PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION ART-related multiple births represent a sizable proportion of all multiple births nationally and in selected states. Efforts should be made to limit the number of embryos transferred for patients undergoing ART.
TL;DR: Abortion surveillance in the United States continues to provide the data necessary for examining trends in numbers and characteristics of women who obtain legal induced abortions and to increase understanding of this pregnancy outcome.
Abstract: PROBLEM/CONDITION CDC began abortion surveillance in 1969 to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED This report summarizes and describes data voluntarily reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 2001. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM For each year since 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data by state or area of occurrence. During 1973-1997, data were received from or estimated for 52 reporting areas in the United States: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1998 and 1999, CDC compiled abortion data from 48 reporting areas. Alaska, California, New Hampshire, and Oklahoma did not report, and data for these states were not estimated. In 2000 and 2001, Oklahoma again reported these data, increasing the number of reporting areas to 49. RESULTS A total of 853,485 legal induced abortions were reported to CDC for 2001 from 49 reporting areas, representing a 0.5% decrease from the 857,475 legal induced abortions reported by the same 49 reporting areas for 2000. The abortion ratio, defined as the number of abortions per 1,000 live births, was 246 in 2001, compared with 245 reported for 2000. This represents a 0.4% increase in the abortion ratio. The abortion rate was 16 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for 2001, the same as for 2000. For both the 48 and 49 reporting areas, the abortion rate remained relatively constant during 1997-2001. The highest percentages of reported abortions were for women who were unmarried (82%), white (55%) and aged 15 weeks' gestation, including 4.3% at 16-20 weeks and 1.4% at > or =21 weeks. A total of 35 reporting areas submitted data stating that they performed medical (nonsurgical) procedures, making up 2.9% of all reported procedures from the 45 areas with adequate reporting on type of procedure. In 2000 (the most recent year for which data are available), 11 women died as a result of complications from known legal induced abortion. No deaths were associated with known illegal abortion. INTERPRETATION During 1990-1997, the number of legal induced abortions gradually declined. When the same 48 reporting areas are compared, the number of abortions decreased during 1996-2001. In 2000 and 2001, even with one additional reporting state, the number of abortions declined slightly. In 2000, as in previous years, deaths related to legal induced abortions occurred rarely (less than one death per 100,000 abortions). PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION Abortion surveillance in the United States continues to provide the data necessary for examining trends in numbers and characteristics of women who obtain legal induced abortions and to increase understanding of this pregnancy outcome. Policymakers and program planners use these data to improve the health and well-being of women and infants.
TL;DR: To reduce the number of drownings, environmental protections should be adopted; alcohol use should be avoided while swimming, boating, or water skiing or while supervising children; and all participants, caregivers, and supervisors should be knowledgeable regarding water-safety skills and be trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Abstract: Drowning is the seventh leading cause of unintentional injury deaths for all ages and the second leading cause of all injury deaths in children aged 1-14 years. Many of these injuries occur in recreational water settings, including pools, spas/hot tubs, and natural water settings (e.g., lakes, rivers, or oceans). To examine the incidence and characteristics of nonfatal and fatal unintentional drownings in recreational water settings, CDC analyzed 2001-2002 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) and National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) death certificate data from 2001. This report summarizes that analysis, which indicated that, during 2001-2002, an estimated 4,174 persons on average per year were treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments (EDs) for nonfatal unintentional drowning injuries in recreational water settings. Approximately 53% of persons required hospitalization or transfer for more specialized care. During 2001, a total of 3,372 persons suffered fatal unintentional drownings in recreational settings. Nonfatal and fatal injury rates were highest for children aged < or =4 years and for males of all ages. To reduce the number of drownings, environmental protections (e.g., isolation pool-fences and lifeguards) should be adopted; alcohol use should be avoided while swimming, boating, or water skiing or while supervising children; and all participants, caregivers, and supervisors should be knowledgeable regarding water-safety skills and be trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
TL;DR: This report describes two cases in Los Angeles County (LAC), California, in which public health officials used the Internet to notify partners who were otherwise anonymous and local public health authorities might develop similar strategies to use the internet to reduce transmission of STDs.
Abstract: An estimated one third of Internet visits by persons aged > or =18 years are to sexually oriented websites, chat rooms, and news groups that enable users to view sexual images or participate in online discussions of a sexual nature. Although so-called \"virtual sex\" carries no risk for transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), use of the Internet to find partners for actual sexual activity does carry such risk. During 2001-2003, of 759 men who have sex with men (MSM) and who had early syphilis, 172 (23%) reported using the Internet to meet sex partners (Los Angeles County Department of Health Services [LACDHS], unpublished data, 2003). Because the Internet enables sex partners to maintain anonymity by withholding identifying information (e.g., full name, address, and place of employment), it poses challenges for public health authorities. Use of the Internet by public health authorities to notify sex partners of persons with STDs has been reported previously. This report describes two cases in Los Angeles County (LAC), California, in which public health officials used the Internet to notify partners who were otherwise anonymous. Local public health authorities might develop similar strategies to use the Internet to reduce transmission of STDs.
TL;DR: This assessment summarizes the results of a national survey of state terrorism-preparedness coordinators and state epidemiologists and reflects the authors' and others' experiences with implementation of syndromic surveillance systems.
Abstract: The development of syndromic surveillance systems to detect potential terrorist-related outbreaks has the potential to be a useful public health surveillance activity However, the perception of how the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule applies to the disclosure of certain public health information might affect the ability of state and local health departments to implement syndromic surveillance systems within their jurisdictions To assess this effect, a multiple-question survey asked respondents to share their experiences regarding patient confidentiality and HIPAA Privacy Rule requirements when imple menting syndromic surveillance systems This assessment summarizes the results of a national survey of state terrorism-preparedness coordinators and state epidemiologists and reflects the authors' and others' experiences with implementation
TL;DR: The 3.3% decrease in malaria cases in 2002, compared with 2001, resulted primarily from a marked decrease in cases acquired in the Americas, but this decrease was offset somewhat by an increase in the number of cases acquire in Africa and Asia.
Abstract: Problem/condition Malaria is caused by any of four species of intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium (i.e., P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, or P. malariae). These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to areas with ongoing transmission. In the United States, cases can occur through exposure to infected blood products, by congenital transmission, or by local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. Period covered This report covers cases with onset of illness in 2002. Description of system Malaria cases confirmed by blood film are reported to local and state health departments by health-care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS). Data from NMSS serve as the basis for this report. Results CDC received reports of 1,337 cases of malaria with an onset of symptoms in 2002 among persons in the United States or one of its territories. This number represents a decrease of 3.3% from the 1,383 cases reported for 2001. P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale were identified in 52.3%, 25.4%, 2.8%, and 2.8% of cases, respectively. Eleven patients (0.8% of total) were infected by > or =2 species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 213 (15.9%) cases. Compared with 2001, the number of reported malaria cases acquired in Asia (n = 171) and Africa (n = 903) increased by 4.3% and 1.9%, respectively, whereas the number of cases acquired in the Americas (n = 141) decreased by 41.2%. Of 849 U.S. civilians who acquired malaria abroad, 317 (37.3%) reported that they had followed a chemoprophylactic drug regimen recommended by CDC for the area to which they had traveled. Five patients became infected in the United States, one through congenital transmission, one probable transfusion-related, and three whose infection cannot be linked epidemiologically to secondary cases. Eight deaths were attributed to malaria. All deaths were caused by P. falciparum. Interpretation The 3.3% decrease in malaria cases in 2002, compared with 2001, resulted primarily from a marked decrease in cases acquired in the Americas, but this decrease was offset somewhat by an increase in the number of cases acquired in Africa and Asia. This limited decrease probably represents year-to-year variation in malaria cases, but also could have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, decreased travel to malaria-endemic regions, fluctuation in reporting to state and local health departments, or an increased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country in which they acquired malaria. Public health action Additional information was obtained concerning the eight fatal cases and the five infections acquired in the United States. Persons traveling to a malarious area should take one of the recommended chemoprophylaxis regimens appropriate for the region of travel, and travelers should use personal protection measures to prevent mosquito bites. Any person who has been to a malarious area and who subsequently experiences a fever or influenza-like symptoms should seek medical care immediately and report their travel history to the clinician; investigation should include a blood-film test for malaria. Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Recommendations concerning malaria prevention can be obtained from CDC by calling the Malaria Hotline at 770-488-7788 or by accessing CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.
TL;DR: This report provides guidelines in the following six areas: response and consequence management planning, including the minimum components of a facility response plan; immediate response and evacuation; decontamination of potentially exposed workers to remove spores from clothing and skin and prevent introduction of B. anthracis into the worker's home and conveyances; laboratory confirmation of an ADS signal; steps for evaluating potentially contaminated environments.
Abstract: Autonomous detection systems (ADSs) are under development to detect agents of biologic and chemical terror in the environment. These systems will eventually be able to detect biologic and chemical hazards reliably and provide approximate real-time alerts that an agent is present. One type of ADS that tests specifically for Bacillus anthracis is being deployed in hundreds of postal distribution centers across the United States. Identification of aerosolized B. anthracis spores in an air sample can facilitate prompt on-site decontamination of workers and subsequent administration of postexposure prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax. Every employer who deploys an ADS should develop detailed plans for responding to a positive signal. Responding to ADS detection of B. anthracis involves coordinating responses with community partners and should include drills and exercises with these partners. This report provides guidelines in the following six areas: 1) response and consequence management planning, including the minimum components of a facility response plan; 2) immediate response and evacuation; 3) decontamination of potentially exposed workers to remove spores from clothing and skin and prevent introduction of B. anthracis into the worker's home and conveyances; 4) laboratory confirmation of an ADS signal; 5) steps for evaluating potentially contaminated environments; and 6) postexposure prophylaxis and follow-up.
TL;DR: The cause of the outbreak was determined to be a combination of stool contamination, a blocked chlorine feed tube, and multiple lapses of pool-maintenance procedures, which underscores the importance of correct pool maintenance for rapid identification of water-quality problems to prevent outbreaks of swimming pool-associated illness.
Abstract: John Snow's historic investigation of a severe epidemic of cholera traced the cause of infection to a common water source. Today, 150 years later, waterborne diseases remain a public health problem, and similar investigations are used to identify the source of infection. On February 3, 2004, the Vermont Department of Health (VDH) was notified of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis among children whose only common exposure was attendance at a swimming club the previous weekend (January 31-February 1). This report summarizes the results of an investigation conducted by VDH and CDC, which determined the cause of the outbreak to be a combination of stool contamination, a blocked chlorine feed tube, and multiple lapses of pool-maintenance procedures. The findings underscore the importance of correct pool maintenance for rapid identification of water-quality problems to prevent outbreaks of swimming pool-associated illness.
TL;DR: The overall prevalence of elevated blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) among motorcycle drivers who died in crashes declined, however, the peak rate of death among alcohol-impaired motorcycle drivers shifted from those aged 20-24 years to those aged 40-44 years.
Abstract: Motorcycles are the most dangerous type of motor vehicle to drive. These vehicles are involved in fatal crashes at a rate of 35.0 per 100 million miles of travel, compared with a rate of 1.7 per 100 million miles of travel for passenger cars. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has reported increasing numbers of motorcycle deaths associated with alcohol-impaired driving in recent years, especially among persons aged > or =40 years. To determine trends by age group in motorcycle fatalities overall and in those involving alcohol impairment, CDC analyzed data from the NHTSA Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 1983, 1993, and 2003. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, during 1983-2003, the overall prevalence of elevated blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) among motorcycle drivers who died in crashes declined; however, the peak rate of death among alcohol-impaired motorcycle drivers shifted from those aged 20-24 years to those aged 40-44 years. Strong enforcement of existing BAC laws, together with other public health interventions aimed at motorcyclists, might reduce the crash mortality rate, especially among older drivers.