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JournalISSN: 1755-8417


About: Pathogenetics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Virus. It has an ISSN identifier of 1755-8417. Over the lifetime, 3310 publication(s) have been published receiving 23495 citation(s). more

Topics: Population, Virus, Virulence more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1755-8417-1-4
Wenli Gu1, Wenli Gu2, Feng Zhang1, James R. Lupski3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Nov 2008-Pathogenetics
Abstract: Genomic rearrangements describe gross DNA changes of the size ranging from a couple of hundred base pairs, the size of an average exon, to megabases (Mb). When greater than 3 to 5 Mb, such changes are usually visible microscopically by chromosome studies. Human diseases that result from genomic rearrangements have been called genomic disorders. Three major mechanisms have been proposed for genomic rearrangements in the human genome. Non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) is mostly mediated by low-copy repeats (LCRs) with recombination hotspots, gene conversion and apparent minimal efficient processing segments. NAHR accounts for most of the recurrent rearrangements: those that share a common size, show clustering of breakpoints, and recur in multiple individuals. Non-recurrent rearrangements are of different sizes in each patient, but may share a smallest region of overlap whose change in copy number may result in shared clinical features among different patients. LCRs do not mediate, but may stimulate non-recurrent events. Some rare NAHRs can also be mediated by highly homologous repetitive sequences (for example, Alu, LINE); these NAHRs account for some of the non-recurrent rearrangements. Other non-recurrent rearrangements can be explained by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and the Fork Stalling and Template Switching (FoSTeS) models. These mechanisms occur both in germ cells, where the rearrangements can be associated with genomic disorders, and in somatic cells in which such genomic rearrangements can cause disorders such as cancer. NAHR, NHEJ and FoSTeS probably account for the majority of genomic rearrangements in our genome and the frequency distribution of the three at a given locus may partially reflect the genomic architecture in proximity to that locus. We provide a review of the current understanding of these three models. more

Topics: Gene conversion (51%), Human genome (51%)

570 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS9030231
20 Mar 2020-Pathogenetics
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of fatal pneumonia cases presented in Wuhan, China. They were caused by a previously unknown coronavirus. All patients had been associated with the Wuhan Wholefood market, where seafood and live animals are sold. The virus spread rapidly and public health authorities in China initiated a containment effort. However, by that time, travelers had carried the virus to many countries, sparking memories of the previous coronavirus epidemics, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and causing widespread media attention and panic. Based on clinical criteria and available serological and molecular information, the new disease was called coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), and the novel coronavirus was called SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emphasizing its close relationship to the 2002 SARS virus (SARS-CoV). The scientific community raced to uncover the origin of the virus, understand the pathogenesis of the disease, develop treatment options, define the risk factors, and work on vaccine development. Here we present a summary of current knowledge regarding the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes. more

379 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS9030186
04 Mar 2020-Pathogenetics
Abstract: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that have become a major public health concern since the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) outbreak in 2002. The continuous evolution of coronaviruses was further highlighted with the emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) outbreak in 2012. Currently, the world is concerned about the 2019 novel CoV (SARS-CoV-2) that was initially identified in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019. Patients presented with severe viral pneumonia and respiratory illness. The number of cases has been mounting since then. As of late February 2020, tens of thousands of cases and several thousand deaths have been reported in China alone, in addition to thousands of cases in other countries. Although the fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is currently lower than SARS-CoV, the virus seems to be highly contagious based on the number of infected cases to date. In this review, we discuss structure, genome organization, entry of CoVs into target cells, and provide insights into past and present outbreaks. The future of human CoV outbreaks will not only depend on how the viruses will evolve, but will also depend on how we develop efficient prevention and treatment strategies to deal with this continuous threat. more

Topics: Outbreak (51%)

323 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS3010014
Philippe Gérard1Institutions (1)
30 Dec 2013-Pathogenetics
Abstract: The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host's enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered. more

Topics: Bile acid (59%), Gut flora (58%), Coprostanol (52%) more

313 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS2020288
13 May 2013-Pathogenetics
Abstract: The influence of microorganisms growing as sessile communities in a large number of human infections has been extensively studied and recognized for 30-40 years, therefore warranting intense scientific and medical research. Nonetheless, mimicking the biofilm-life style of bacteria and biofilm-related infections has been an arduous task. Models used to study biofilms range from simple in vitro to complex in vivo models of tissues or device-related infections. These different models have progressively contributed to the current knowledge of biofilm physiology within the host context. While far from a complete understanding of the multiple elements controlling the dynamic interactions between the host and biofilms, we are nowadays witnessing the emergence of promising preventive or curative strategies to fight biofilm-related infections. This review undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the literature from a historic perspective commenting on the contribution of the different models and discussing future venues and new approaches that can be merged with more traditional techniques in order to model biofilm-infections and efficiently fight them. more

Topics: Context (language use) (51%)

308 Citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Robert Colebunders

11 papers, 51 citations

Donato Traversa

9 papers, 38 citations

Marcelo Gottschalk

9 papers, 120 citations

Harriet Whiley

8 papers, 124 citations

Mingming Liu

7 papers, 11 citations

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