# Boundary and inertia effects on flow and heat transfer in porous media

TL;DR: In this article, the effects of a solid boundary and the inertial forces on flow and heat transfer in porous media were analyzed, and a new concept of the momentum boundary layer central to the numerical routine was presented.

Abstract: The present work analyzes the effects of a solid boundary and the inertial forces on flow and heat transfer in porous media. Specific attention is given to flow through a porous medium in the vicinity of an impermeable boundary. The local volume-averaging technique has been utilized to establish the governing equations, along with an indication of physical limitations and assumptions made in the course of this development. A numerical scheme for the governing equations has been developed to investigate the velocity and temperature fields inside a porous medium near an impermeable boundary, and a new concept of the momentum boundary layer central to the numerical routine is presented. The boundary and inertial effects are characterized in terms of three dimensionless groups, and these effects are shown to be more pronounced in highly permeable media, high Prandtl-number fluids, large pressure gradients, and in the region close to the leading edge of the flow boundary layer.

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TL;DR: In this article, the effective thermal conductivity (ke), permeability (K), and inertial coefficient (f) of high porosity metal foams were derived by considering a circular blob of metal at the intersection of two fibers.

Abstract: In this paper, we present a comprehensive analytical and experimental investigation for the determination of the effective thermal conductivity (ke), permeability (K) and inertial coefficient (f) of high porosity metal foams. In the first part of the study, we provide an analysis for estimating the effective thermal conductivity (ke). Commercially available metal foams form a complex array of interconnected fibers with an irregular lump of metal at the intersection of two fibers. In our theoretical model, we represent this structure by a model consisting of a two-dimensional array of hexagonal cells where the fibers form the sides of the hexagons. The lump is taken into account by considering a circular blob of metal at the intersection. The analysis shows that ke depends strongly on the porosity and the ratio of the cross-sections of the fiber and the intersection. However, it has no systematic dependence on pore density. Experimental data with aluminum and reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams, using air and water as fluid media are used to validate the analytical predictions. The second part of our paper involves the determination of the permeability (K) and inertial coefficient (f) of these high porosity metal foams. Fluid flow experiments were conducted on a number of metal foam samples covering a wide range of porosities and pore densities in our in-house wind tunnel. The results show that K increases with pore diameter and porosity of the medium. The inertial coefficient, f, on the other hand, depends only on porosity. An analytical model is proposed to predict f based on the theory of flow over bluff bodies, and is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. A modified permeability model is also presented in terms of the porosity, pore diameter and tortuosity of our metal foam samples, and is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measured data.

998 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental and numerical study of forced convection in high porosity (e∼0.89-0.97) metal foams was conducted using air as the fluid medium.

Abstract: We report an experimental and numerical study of forced convection in high porosity (e∼0.89-0.97) metal foams. Experiments have been conducted with aluminum metal foams in a variety of porosities and pore densities using air as the fluid medium. Nusselt number data has been obtained as a function of the pore Reynolds number. In the numerical study, a semi-empirical volume-averaged form of the governing equations is used. The velocity profile is obtained by adapting an exact solution to the momentum equation. The energy transport is modeled without invoking the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. Models for the thermal dispersion conductivity, k d , and the interstitial heat transfer coefficient, h sf , are postulated based on physical arguments. The empirical constants in these models are determined by matching the numerical results with the experimental data obtained in this study as well as those in the open literature. Excellent agreement is achieved in the entire range of the parameters studied, indicating that the proposed treatment is sufficient to model forced convection in metal foams for most practical applications

911 citations

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28 May 2004

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a method for heat transfer in a composite slab with the Galerkin method and the Finite Element Method (FEM) to solve the heat transfer problem.

Abstract: Preface. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Importance of Heat Transfer. 1.2 Heat Transfer Modes. 1.3 The Laws of Heat Transfer. 1.4 Formulation of Heat Transfer Problems. 1.4.1 Heat transfer from a plate exposed to solar heat flux. 1.4.2 Incandescent lamp. 1.4.3 Systems with a relative motion and internal heat generation. 1.5 Heat Conduction Equation. 1.6 Boundary and Initial Conditions. 1.7 Solution Methodology. 1.8 Summary. 1.9 Exercise. Bibliography. 2 Some Basic Discrete Systems. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Steady State Problems. 2.2.1 Heat flow in a composite slab. 2.2.2 Fluid flow network. 2.2.3 Heat transfer in heat sinks (combined conduction-convection). 2.2.4 Analysis of a heat exchanger. 2.3 Transient Heat Transfer Problem (Propagation Problem). 2.4 Summary. 2.5 Exercise. Bibliography. 3 The Finite Elemen t Method. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Elements and Shape Functions. 3.2.1 One-dimensional linear element. 3.2.2 One-dimensional quadratic element. 3.2.3 Two-dimensional linear triangular elements. 3.2.4 Area coordinates. 3.2.5 Quadratic triangular elements. 3.2.6 Two-dimensional quadrilateral elements. 3.2.7 Isoparametric elements. 3.2.8 Three-dimensional elements. 3.3 Formulation (Element Characteristics). 3.3.1 Ritz method (Heat balance integral method-Goodman's method). 3.3.2 Rayleigh-Ritz method (Variational method). 3.3.3 The method of weighted residuals. 3.3.4 Galerkin finite element method. 3.4 Formulation for the Heat Conduction Equation. 3.4.1 Variational approach. 3.4.2 The Galerkin method. 3.5 Requirements for Interpolation Functions. 3.6 Summary. 3.7 Exercise. Bibliography. 4 Steady State Heat Conduction in One Dimension. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Plane Walls. 4.2.1 Homogeneous wall. 4.2.2 Composite wall. 4.2.3 Finite element discretization. 4.2.4 Wall with varying cross-sectional area. 4.2.5 Plane wall with a heat source: solution by linear elements. 4.2.6 Plane wall with a heat source: solution by quadratic elements. 4.2.7 Plane wall with a heat source: solution by modified quadratic equations (static condensation). 4.3 Radial Heat Flow in a Cylinder. 4.3.1 Cylinder with heat source. 4.4 Conduction-Convection Systems. 4.5 Summary. 4.6 Exercise. Bibliography. 5 Steady State Heat Conduction in Multi-dimensions. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Two-dimensional Plane Problems. 5.2.1 Triangular elements. 5.3 Rectangular Elements. 5.4 Plate with Variable Thickness. 5.5 Three-dimensional Problems. 5.6 Axisymmetric Problems. 5.6.1 Galerkin's method for linear triangular axisymmetric elements. 5.7 Summary. 5.8 Exercise. Bibliography. 6 Transient Heat Conduction Analysis. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Lumped Heat Capacity System. 6.3 Numerical Solution. 6.3.1 Transient governing equations and boundary and initial conditions. 6.3.2 The Galerkin method. 6.4 One-dimensional Transient State Problem. 6.4.1 Time discretization using the Finite Difference Method (FDM). 6.4.2 Time discretization using the Finite Element Method (FEM). 6.5 Stability. 6.6 Multi-dimensional Transient Heat Conduction. 6.7 Phase Change Problems-Solidification and Melting. 6.7.1 The governing equations. 6.7.2 Enthalpy formulation. 6.8 Inverse Heat Conduction Problems. 6.8.1 One-dimensional heat conduction. 6.9 Summary. 6.10 Exercise. Bibliography. 7 Convection Heat Transfer 173 7.1 Introduction. 7.1.1 Types of fluid-motion-assisted heat transport. 7.2 Navier-Stokes Equations. 7.2.1 Conservation of mass or continuity equation. 7.2.2 Conservation of momentum. 7.2.3 Energy equation. 7.3 Non-dimensional Form of the Governing Equations. 7.3.1 Forced convection. 7.3.2 Natural convection (Buoyancy-driven convection). 7.3.3 Mixed convection. 7.4 The Transient Convection-diffusion Problem. 7.4.1 Finite element solution to convection-diffusion equation. 7.4.2 Extension to multi-dimensions. 7.5 Stability Conditions. 7.6 Characteristic-based Split (CBS) Scheme. 7.6.1 Spatial discretization. 7.6.2 Time-step calculation. 7.6.3 Boundary and initial conditions. 7.6.4 Steady and transient solution methods. 7.7 Artificial Compressibility Scheme. 7.8 Nusselt Number, Drag and Stream Function. 7.8.1 Nusselt number. 7.8.2 Drag calculation. 7.8.3 Stream function. 7.9 Mesh Convergence. 7.10 Laminar Isothermal Flow. 7.10.1 Geometry, boundary and initial conditions. 7.10.2 Solution. 7.11 Laminar Non-isothermal Flow. 7.11.1 Forced convection heat transfer. 7.11.2 Buoyancy-driven convection heat transfer. 7.11.3 Mixed convection heat transfer. 7.12 Introduction to Turbulent Flow. 7.12.1 Solution procedure and result. 7.13 Extension to Axisymmetric Problems. 7.14 Summary. 7.15 Exercise. Bibliography. 8 Convection in Porous Media. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Generalized Porous Medium Flow Approach. 8.2.1 Non-dimensional scales. 8.2.2 Limiting cases. 8.3 Discretization Procedure. 8.3.1 Temporal discretization. 8.3.2 Spatial discretization. 8.3.3 Semi- and quasi-implicit forms. 8.4 Non-isothermal Flows. 8.5 Forced Convection. 8.6 Natural Convection. 8.6.1 Constant porosity medium. 8.7 Summary. 8.8 Exercise. Bibliography. 9 Some Examples of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Problems. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Isothermal Flow Problems. 9.2.1 Steady state problems. 9.2.2 Transient flow. 9.3 Non-isothermal Benchmark Flow Problem. 9.3.1 Backward-facing step. 9.4 Thermal Conduction in an Electronic Package. 9.5 Forced Convection Heat Transfer From Heat Sources. 9.6 Summary. 9.7 Exercise. Bibliography. 10 Implementation of Computer Code. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Preprocessing. 10.2.1 Mesh generation. 10.2.2 Linear triangular element data. 10.2.3 Element size calculation. 10.2.4 Shape functions and their derivatives. 10.2.5 Boundary normal calculation. 10.2.6 Mass matrix and mass lumping. 10.2.7 Implicit pressure or heat conduction matrix. 10.3 Main Unit. 10.3.1 Time-step calculation. 10.3.2 Element loop and assembly. 10.3.3 Updating solution. 10.3.4 Boundary conditions. 10.3.5 Monitoring steady state. 10.4 Postprocessing. 10.4.1 Interpolation of data. 10.5 Summary. Bibliography. A Green's Lemma. B Integration Formulae. B.1 Linear Triangles. B.2 Linear Tetrahedron. C Finite Element Assembly Procedure. D Simplified Form of the Navier-Stokes Equations. Index.

653 citations

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TL;DR: The main concepts studied in this review are transport in porous media using mass diffusion and different convective flow models such as Darcy and the Brinkman models as mentioned in this paper, and energy transport in tissues is also analyzed.

Abstract: Flow and heat transfer in biological tissues are analyzed in this investigation. Pertinent works are reviewed in order to show how transport theories in porous media advance the progress in biology. The main concepts studied in this review are transport in porous media using mass diffusion and different convective flow models such as Darcy and the Brinkman models. Energy transport in tissues is also analyzed. Progress in development of the bioheat equation (heat transfer equation in biological tissues) and evaluation of the applications associated with the bioheat equation are analyzed. Prominent examples of diffusive applications and momentum transport by convection are discussed in this work. The theory of porous media for heat transfer in biological tissues is found to be most appropriate since it contains fewer assumptions as compared to different bioheat models. A concept that is related to flow instabilities caused by swimming of microorganisms is also discussed. This concept named bioconvection is different from blood convection inside vessels. The works that consider the possibility of reducing these flow instabilities using porous media are reviewed.

637 citations

### Cites background from "Boundary and inertia effects on flo..."

...Vafai and Tien [34,35] arrived at a generalized model for flow transport in porous media which ac- counts for various pertinent effects....

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...These features are discussed in details and summarized in works of Vafai and Tien [36] and Alazmi and Vafai [37,38]....

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...Vafai and Tien [34,35] arrived at a generalized model for flow transport in porous media which accounts for various pertinent effects....

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TL;DR: In this paper, a numerical simulation of forced convective incompressible flow through porous media, and the associated transport processes was employed, and a full general model for the momentum equation was employed.

Abstract: The present work involves the numerical simulation of forced convective incompressible flow through porous media, and the associated transport processes. A full general model for the momentum equation was employed. The mathematical model for energy transport was based on the two-phase equation model which assumes no local thermal equilibrium between the fluid and the solid phases. The investigation aimed at a comprehensive analysis of the influence of a variety of effects such as the inertial effects, boundary effects, porosity variation effects, thermal dispersion effects, validity of local thermal equilibrium assumption and two dimensionality effects on the transport processes in porous media. The results presented in this work provide detailed yet readily accessible error maps for assessing the importance of various simplifying assumptions which are commonly used by researchers.

605 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the viscous force exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of particles is described by a modification of Darcy's equation, which was necessary in order to obtain consistent boundary conditions.

Abstract: A calculation is given of the viscous force, exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of particles. The model underlying these calculations is that of a spherical particle embedded in a porous mass. The flow through this porous mass is decribed by a modification of Darcy's equation. Such a modification was necessary in order to obtain consistent boundary conditions. A relation between permeability and particle size and density is obtained. Our results are compared with an experimental relation due to Carman.

2,519 citations