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# Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow

01 Jan 1980-

TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on heat and mass transfer, fluid flow, chemical reaction, and other related processes that occur in engineering equipment, the natural environment, and living organisms.

Abstract: This book focuses on heat and mass transfer, fluid flow, chemical reaction, and other related processes that occur in engineering equipment, the natural environment, and living organisms. Using simple algebra and elementary calculus, the author develops numerical methods for predicting these processes mainly based on physical considerations. Through this approach, readers will develop a deeper understanding of the underlying physical aspects of heat transfer and fluid flow as well as improve their ability to analyze and interpret computed results.

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01 Jun 1978TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the applicability of the standard κ-ϵ equations and other turbulence models with respect to their applicability in swirling, recirculating flows.

Abstract: The standard κ-ϵ equations and other turbulence models are evaluated with respect to their applicability in swirling, recirculating flows. The turbulence models are formulated on the basis of two separate viewpoints. The first perspective assumes that an isotropic eddy viscosity and the modified Boussinesq hypothesis adequately describe the stress distributions, and that the source of predictive error is a consequence of the modeled terms in the κ-ϵ equations. Both stabilizing and destabilizing Richardson number corrections are incorporated to investigate this line of reasoning. A second viewpoint proposes that the eddy viscosity approach is inherently inadequate and that a redistribution of the stress magnitudes is necessary. Investigation of higher-order closure is pursued on the level of an algebraic stress closure. Various turbulence model predictions are compared with experimental data from a variety of isothermal, confined studies. Supportive swirl comparisons are also performed for a laminar flow case, as well as reacting flow cases. Parallel predictions or contributions from other sources are also consulted where appropriate. Predictive accuracy was found to be a partial function of inlet boundary conditions and numerical diffusion. Despite prediction sensitivity to inlet conditions and numerics, the data comparisons delineate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various modifications. Possible research avenues in the area of computational modeling of strongly swirling, recirculating flows are reviewed and discussed.

5,396 citations

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TL;DR: The use of a latent heat storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing thermal energy and has the advantages of high energy storage density and the isothermal nature of the storage process.

Abstract: The use of a latent heat storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing thermal energy and has the advantages of high-energy storage density and the isothermal nature of the storage process. PCMs have been widely used in latent heat thermal-storage systems for heat pumps, solar engineering, and spacecraft thermal control applications. The uses of PCMs for heating and cooling applications for buildings have been investigated within the past decade. There are large numbers of PCMs that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. This paper also summarizes the investigation and analysis of the available thermal energy storage systems incorporating PCMs for use in different applications.

4,482 citations

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TL;DR: A review of the emerging research on additive manufacturing of metallic materials is provided in this article, which provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts.

Abstract: Since its inception, significant progress has been made in understanding additive manufacturing (AM) processes and the structure and properties of the fabricated metallic components. Because the field is rapidly evolving, a periodic critical assessment of our understanding is useful and this paper seeks to address this need. It covers the emerging research on AM of metallic materials and provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts. The uniqueness of this review includes substantive discussions on refractory alloys, precious metals and compositionally graded alloys, a succinct comparison of AM with welding and a critical examination of the printability of various engineering alloys based on experiments and theory. An assessment of the status of the field, the gaps in the scientific understanding and the research needs for the expansion of AM of metallic components are provided.

4,192 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a non-iterative method for handling the coupling of the implicitly discretised time-dependent fluid flow equations is described, based on the use of pressure and velocity as dependent variables and is hence applicable to both the compressible and incompressible versions of the transport equations.

Abstract: A non-iterative method for handling the coupling of the implicitly discretised time-dependent fluid flow equations is described. The method is based on the use of pressure and velocity as dependent variables and is hence applicable to both the compressible and incompressible versions of the transport equations. The main feature of the technique is the splitting of the solution process into a series of steps whereby operations on pressure are decoupled from those on velocity at each step, with the split sets of equations being amenable to solution by standard techniques. At each time-step, the procedure yields solutions which approximate the exact solution of the difference equations. The accuracy of this splitting procedure is assessed for a linearised form of the discretised equations, and the analysis indicates that the solution yielded by it differs from the exact solution of the difference equations by terms proportional to the powers of the time-step size. By virtue of this, it is possible to dispense with iteration, thus resulting in an efficient implicit scheme while retaining simplicity of implementation relative to contemporary block simultaneous methods. This is verified in a companion paper which presents results of computations carried out using the method.

4,019 citations

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TL;DR: The performances of SIMPLE, SIMPLER, and SIMPLEC are compared for two recirculating flow problems and several modifications to the method are shown which both simplify its implementation and reduce solution costs.

Abstract: Variations of the SIMPLE method of Patankar and Spalding have been widely used over the past decade to obtain numerical solutions to problems involving incompressible flows. The present paper shows several modifications to the method which both simplify its implementation and reduce solution costs. The performances of SIMPLE, SIMPLER, and SIMPLEC (the present method) are compared for two recirculating flow problems. The paper is addressed to readers who already have experience with SIMPLE or its variants.

3,276 citations