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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10903127.2020.1737282

Demography of the National Emergency Medical Services Workforce: A Description of Those Providing Patient Care in the Prehospital Setting.

04 Mar 2021-Prehospital Emergency Care (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 25, Iss: 2, pp 213-220
Abstract: Background: The emergency medical services (EMS) workforce is a key component of healthcare in the U.S. Characteristics of active EMS professionals who are treating patients in the prehospital sett...

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Topics: Emergency medical services (60%), Workforce (54%), Health care (52%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10903127.2020.1856985
Abstract: Background: The EMS Practice Analysis provides a vision of current prehospital care by defining the work performed by EMS professionals. In this manuscript, we present the National Advanced Life Su...

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10903127.2021.1925793
Abstract: Position Statement and Resource document approved by the NAEMSP Board of Directors on April 27, 2021.

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Topics: Scope of practice (52%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10903127.2021.1993391
Abstract: Background: Immunizations for emergency medical services (EMS) professionals during pandemics are an important tool to increase the safety of the workforce as well as their patients. The purpose of this study was to better understand EMS professionals' decisions to receive or decline a COVID-19 vaccine.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of nationally certified EMS professionals (18-85 years) in April 2021. Participants received an electronic survey asking whether they received a vaccine, why or why not, and their associated beliefs using three validated scales: perceived risk of COVID-19, medical mistrust, and confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine. Data were merged with National Registry dataset demographics. Analyses included descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression (OR, 95% CI). Multivariate imputation by chained equations was used for missingness.Results: A total of 2,584 respondents satisfied inclusion criteria (response rate = 14%). Overall, 70% of EMS professionals were vaccinated. Common reasons for vaccination among vaccinated respondents were to protect oneself (76%) and others (73%). Common reasons for non-vaccination among non-vaccinated respondents included concerns about vaccine safety (53%) and beliefs that vaccination was not necessary (39%). Most who had not received the vaccine did not plan to get it in the future (84%). Hesitation was most frequently related to wanting to see how the vaccine was working for others (55%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccination were associated with demographics including age (referent 51 years: 2.22, 1.64-3.01), male sex (1.26, 1.01-1.58), residing in an urban/suburban area (referent rural; 1.36, 1.08-1.70), advanced education (referent GED/high school and below; bachelor's and above: 1.72, 1.19-2.47), and working at a hospital (referent fire-based agency; 1.53, 1.04-2.24). Additionally, vaccination odds were significantly higher with greater perceived risk of COVID-19 (2.05, 1.68-2.50), and higher vaccine confidence (2.84, 2.40-3.36). Odds of vaccination were significantly lower with higher medical mistrust (0.54, 0.46-0.63).Conclusion: Despite vaccine availability, not all EMS professionals had been vaccinated. The decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccine was associated with demographics, beliefs regarding COVID-19 and the vaccine, and medical mistrust. Efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination rates should emphasize the safety and efficacy of vaccines.

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Topics: Vaccination (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/EMP2.12516
Rebecca E. Cash1, Sarah E. Anderson1, Kathryn E. Lancaster1, Bo Lu1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Objective Our objective was to quantify the associations between sleep duration and perceived and chronic stress with ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) among emergency medical services (EMS) personnel from county-based EMS agencies. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free EMS personnel from 4 US EMS agencies. The questionnaire consisted of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Chronic Burden Scale, and the CVH components (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, each scored 0-2 points). The components were summed and ideal CVH considered 11-14 points. Mixed effects logistic regression models with a random intercept for agency were used to estimate the odds of ideal CVH for good sleep quality (PSQI < 5 points), recommended sleep duration (7 to < 9h), low perceived stress (PSS < 26 points), and low chronic stress (0 recent stressful events). Results We received 379 responses (response rate = 32%). There was low prevalence of good sleep quality (23%) and recommended sleep duration (25%), but 95% reported low perceived stress, and 33% had low chronic stress. Ideal CVH was reported by 30%. No significant associations between ideal CVH and sleep quality, perceived stress, or chronic stress were found. There was a nearly 2-fold increase in the odds of ideal CVH with recommended sleep duration (odds ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-3.10). Conclusion In this sample of EMS personnel, only recommended sleep duration was associated with ideal CVH. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand the relationship between sleep, stress, and CVD in this understudied occupational group.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10903127.2021.1980163
Abstract: Introduction: The quality of an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) or paramedic training program is likely one factor that contributes to a candidate's success on the National Registry Cognitive Examination. However, program pass rates and their associated geographic location have not previously been evaluated. Our objective was to evaluate the performance of EMT and paramedic programs in the United States, pass rates on the National Registry Cognitive Examinations, and relationship to geography.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of EMT and paramedic programs' first and cumulative third attempt pass rates on the National Registry Cognitive Examination in 2015. Included were civilian EMT and paramedic programs with >5 graduates testing for certification. Descriptive statistics were calculated for program pass rates, total graduates testing, and pass rates by National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) regions.Results: We included 1,939 EMT programs (6-1,892 graduates testing/program) and 602 paramedic programs (6-689 graduates testing/program). We excluded 262 (11.9%) EMT and 51 (7.8%) paramedic programs with ≤5 graduates testing annually due to unstable estimates of program pass rates. EMT programs in the highest quartile for total number of graduates testing outperformed the lowest quartile in both first attempt (65.7% vs. 61.9%, p < 0.001) and cumulative third attempt pass rates (79.1% vs 72.7%, p < 0.001). This difference was also seen for paramedic programs on first attempt (77.3% vs. 62.5%, p < 0.001) and cumulative third attempt (91.9% vs. 76.9%, p < 0.001). EMT program pass rates for first and cumulative third attempts also varied by NASEMSO region (first: 62-68%; third: 74-78%) with the Great Lakes and West regions outperforming the other regions. Paramedic program pass rates differed by NASEMSO regions as well (first: 65-83%; third: 81-95%) with highest pass rates in the West region.Conclusions Program performance for both EMT and paramedic programs varies by total number of graduates testing and geographic location. Graduates from larger EMT and paramedic programs have higher first and cumulative third attempt pass rates compared to graduates from smaller programs. Additionally, there is variability in program pass rates across NASEMSO regions for both certification levels. Further evaluation is necessary to better understand the variability in program performance in the United States.

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References
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.048793
Manish N. Shah1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The evolution of the emergency medical services system in the United States accelerated rapidly between 1960 and 1973 as a result of a number of medical, historical, and social forces. Current emergency medical services researchers, policy advocates, and administrators must acknowledge these forces and their limitations and work to modify the system into one that provides uniformly high-quality acute care to all patients, improves the overall public health through injury control and disease prevention programs, participates as a full partner in disease surveillance, and is prepared to address new community needs of all types.

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Topics: Emergency medical services (61%), Poison control (53%), Acute care (52%)

114 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3109/10903127.2012.722178
Henry E. Wang1, N. Clay Mann2, Karen E. Jacobson2, Mengtao Dai Ms2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Objective. Despite its long history and current prominence in U.S. communities, only limited data describe the national characteristics of emergency medical services (EMS) care in the United States. We sought to characterize out-of-hospital EMS care in the United States. Methods. We conducted an analysis of the 2010 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) research data set, encompassing EMS emergency response data from 29 states. From these data, we estimated the national number and incidence of EMS responses. We also characterized EMS responses and the patients receiving care. Results. There were 7,563,843 submitted EMS responses, corresponding to an estimated national incidence of 17.4 million EMS emergency responses per year (56 per 1,000 person-years). The EMS response incidence varied by U.S. Census region (South 137.4 per 1,000 population per year, Northeast 85.2, West 39.7, and Midwest 33.3). The use of lights and sirens varied across Census regions (Northeast 90.3%,...

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Topics: Population (55%), Emergency medical services (54%)

73 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S1049023X16001114
Gary Blau1, Susan A. Chapman2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Objective The objective was to determine why Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics leave the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workforce. Methods Data were collected through annual surveys of nationally registered EMT-Basics and Paramedics from 1999 to 2008. Survey items dealing with satisfaction with the EMS profession, likelihood of leaving the profession, and likelihood of leaving their EMS job were assessed for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics, along with reasons for leaving the profession. Individuals whose responses indicated that they were not working in EMS were mailed a special exit survey to determine the reasons for leaving EMS. Results The likelihood of leaving the profession in the next year was low for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics. Although overall satisfaction levels with the profession were high, EMT-Basics were significantly more satisfied than Paramedics. The most important reasons for leaving the profession were choosing to pursue further education and moving to a new location. A desire for better pay and benefits was a significantly more important reason for EMT-Paramedics’ exit decisions than for EMT-Basics. Conclusions Given the anticipated increased demand for EMS professionals in the next decade, continued study of issues associated with retention is strongly recommended. Some specific recommendations and suggestions for promoting retention are provided. Blau G , Chapman SA . Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals Leave EMS? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s105–s111.

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Topics: Emergency medical services (58%), Technician (51%)

16 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S1049023X16001059
Abstract: Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) design, instrument development, pilot testing, sampling procedures, and data collection methodology. Response rates are provided, along with results of follow-up surveys of non-responders (NRs) and a special survey of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals who were not nationally certified. Methods Annual surveys from 1999 to 2008 were mailed out to a random, stratified sample of nationally registered EMT-Basics and Paramedics. Survey weights were developed to reflect each respondent's probability of selection. A special survey of NRs was mailed out to individuals who did not respond to the annual survey to estimate the probable extent and direction of response bias. Individuals who indicated they were no longer in the profession were mailed a special exit survey to determine their reasons for leaving EMS. Results Given the large number of comparisons between NR and regular (annual) survey respondents, it is not surprising that some statistically significant differences were found. In general, there were few differences. However, NRs tended to report higher annual EMS incomes, were younger, healthier, more physically fit, and were more likely to report that they were not practicing EMS. Comparisons of the nationally certified EMS professionals with EMS professionals who were not nationally certified indicated that nationally certified EMS providers were younger, had less EMS experiences, earned less, were more likely to be female and work for private EMS services, and less likely to work for fire-based services. These differences may reflect state and local policy and practice, since many states and local agencies do not require maintenance of national certification as a requirement to practice. When these differences were controlled for statistically, there were few systematic differences between non-nationally certified and nationally certified EMS professionals. Conclusions The LEADS study is the only national, randomized, and longitudinal data source for studying EMS professionals in the United States. Although not without flaws, this study remains an excellent source of information about EMS provider demographics, attributes, attitudes, workplace issues and concerns, and how the profession has changed from 1999 to 2008. Levine R . Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) design and methodology. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s7-s17.

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Topics: Technician (52%), Emergency medical services (51%)

12 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10903127.2019.1634167
Abstract: Background: Workforce diversity can reduce communication barriers and inequalities in healthcare delivery, especially in settings where time pressure and incomplete information may exacerbate the effects of implicit biases. Emergency medical services (EMS) professionals represent a critical entry point into the healthcare system for diverse populations, yet little is known regarding changes in the demographic composition of this workforce. Our primary objective was to describe the gender and racial/ethnic composition of emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics who earned initial National EMS Certification from 2008 to 2017. Secondarily, we compared demographic characteristics of the 2017 EMT and paramedic cohorts to the U.S. population. Methods: As a proxy for recent graduates likely to enter the workforce, we conducted a serial cross-sectional analysis of all EMTs and paramedics earning initial National EMS Certification from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2017. Cuzick's non-parametric test of trend was used to assess for changes in the gender and racial/ethnic composition of the EMS cohorts over time. For 2017, we calculated differences the gender and racial/ethnic composition of the EMT and paramedic cohorts to the U.S population, stratifying by Census region. Results: The study population included 588,337 EMTs and 105,356 paramedics. The proportion of females earning initial EMT certification rose from 28% in 2008 to 35% in 2017. Throughout the study period, less than one-fourth of newly certified paramedics were female (range: 20-23%). The proportion of EMS professionals identifying as black remained near 5% among EMTs and 3% among paramedics. The proportion of newly-certified Hispanic EMS professionals rose from 10% to 13% among EMTs and from 6% to 10% among paramedics. Compared to the U.S. population, females and racial/ethnic minorities were underrepresented among EMTs and paramedics earning initial certification and these representation differences varied across geographic regions. Conclusions: The underrepresentation of females and minority racial/ethnic groups observed during this 10-year investigation of EMTs and paramedics earning initial certification suggests that EMS workforce diversity is unlikely to undergo substantial change in the near future. The representation gaps were larger and more stable among paramedics compared to EMTs and suggest an area where concerted efforts are needed to encourage students of diverse backgrounds to pursue EMS.

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Topics: Emergency medical services (53%), Population (53%)

9 Citations


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