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Journal ArticleDOI

In Vitro Protective Ability of Ramaria aurea Against Free Radical and Identification of Main Phenolic Acids by HPLC

18 Jun 2015-Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 21, Iss: 4, pp 380-391
TL;DR: In this article, a heat-stable, polyphenol-rich extract (RauPre) was prepared from the dried basidiocarps and analyzed for free radical scavenging activity of Ramaria aurea.
Abstract: Free radical scavenging activity of Ramaria aurea, an edible mushroom, naturally grown in Shilong, India, was evaluated. A heat-stable, polyphenol-rich extract (RauPre) was prepared from the dried basidiocarps and analyzed. The major chemical constituent of RauPre was phenols (26.86 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] mg−1 of dry extract); flavonoids, β-carotene, lycopene, and ascorbic acid were present in minor amounts. Main phenolic acids identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were caffeic acid > cinnamic acid > gallic acid. Results from antioxidant assays demonstrated potential for superoxide and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (EC50 0.283 mg mL−1 and 0.384 mg mL−1, respectively). RauPre chelated ferrous ion (EC50 0.95 mg mL−1) and had Fe3+ to Fe2+ reducing power (EC50 1.025 mg mL−1). The activity of 1 mg of RauPre was equivalent to 86.7 μg ascorbic acid for total antioxidant capacity.
Citations
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Journal IssueDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a multichannel pipette-based approach to optimize five antioxidant experiments such as superoxide radical (O2.− ) inhibition, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching, 2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging, chelating ability of ferrous ion and reducing power by means of 96-well plates in minimal reaction volume ranging from 60
Abstract: Context: The research in exploring the antioxidant activity of pharmaceuticals has recently been increased considerably and to determine such property a variety of testing methods are available. However, the major drawback of these conventional tests is their large reaction volumes varying from 2 to 6 ml that in turn demand high quantity of reagents and biological resources. Aims: Thus, this work was focused for optimization of routinely used five antioxidant experiments such as superoxide radical (O2.− ) inhibition, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching, 2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS.+) scavenging, chelating ability of ferrous ion and reducing power by means of 96-well plates in minimal reaction volume ranging from 60 to 200 μl. Subjects and Methods: To authenticate the processes some renowned standards such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, Trolox as well as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were used, and their calibration curves were prepared. Results: Analysis depicted similar activities of all references as reported by traditional protocols suggesting validation of standardized procedures. Conclusion: Thus, the recommended systems clearly improve original one in a number of ways. First, the methods provide concurrent multi-sample investigation with automatic data storage. Second, the approach is time-saving with the use of a multichannel pipette. Third, assays are inexpensive as the use of chemicals is reduced by 10 times. Fourth, the investigating pure compounds or extracts are required in low quantity. Fifth, except O2.− quenching assay, all the methods are applicable to lipophilic and aqueous components both

23 citations


Cites result from "In Vitro Protective Ability of Rama..."

  • ...Nevertheless, our findings were found to be in agreement with the previous reports.[24-26]...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the study show that Ramaria largentii extract is devoid of genotoxicity and has a remarkable DNA protective activity against H2O2-induced damage.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Extensive evidence indicates that ample intake of dietary antioxidants may be of great benefit in improving quality of life and neutralizing free radicals is important for cell protection and antioxidants play an essential role in this context.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, free and bound phenolic acids in flowers and stems of Cuscuta reflexa were extracted by sonication using two extraction procedures and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatograp...
Abstract: Free and bound phenolic acids in flowers and stems of Cuscuta reflexa were extracted by sonication using two extraction procedures and analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatograp...

9 citations


Cites background from "In Vitro Protective Ability of Rama..."

  • ...All plants tend to produce an incredible variety of secondary metabolites (19, 30), of which the bioactive phenolic compounds (BPCs) are considered the most significant diverse non-nutritive naturally occurring compounds (29), drawing the attention of researchers for their physiological properties affecting human health, including antioxidant activity by reducing the level of free radicals (14), antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, vasodilatory, and cardio-protective effects (22, 23, 25)....

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  • ...Stem extracts Free phenolic acids identified were (1) pyrogallolaldehyde, (2) protocatechualdehyde, (3) chlorogenic acid, (4) caffeic acid, (5) p-HBA, (6) p-coumaric acid (Fig 2a); bound phenolic acids identified were (1) gallic acid, (2) 2,4,6-THBA, (3) protocatechualdehyde, (4) gentisic acid, (5) sinapic acid, (6) chlorogenic acid, (7) β-resorcinolic acid, (8) vanillic acid, (9) caffeic acid, (10) hypogallic acid, (11) vanillin, (12) p-HBA, (13) p-coumaric acid, (14) ferulic acid (Fig 2b)....

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  • ...1); bound phenolic acids identified were (1) gallic acid, (2) protocatechuic acid, (3) pyrogallolaldehyde, (4) protocatechualdehyde, (5) gentisic acid, (6) sinapic acid, (7) β-resorcinolic acid, (8) chlorogenic acid, (9) vanillic acid, (10) caffeic acid, (11) hypogallic acid, (12) vanillin, (13) p-HBA, (14) p-coumaric acid, and (15) ferulic acid (Fig....

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References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the use of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent rather than the FolinDenis reagent, gallic acid as a reference standard, and a more reproducible time-temperature color development period was investigated.
Abstract: Several details of the assay of total phenolic substances have been investigated and an improved procedure developed. The improvements include the use of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent rather than the Folin-Denis reagent, gallic acid as a reference standard, and a more reproducible time-temperature color development period. The values obtained are less subject to variation and interference from several nonphenols, yet are directly comparable to the "tannin" values obtained by the previously standard method.

18,629 citations


"In Vitro Protective Ability of Rama..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The total phenols in RauPre were estimated using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and gallic acid as standard (30)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing.

12,240 citations


"In Vitro Protective Ability of Rama..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It helps in the generation of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide by Fenton’s reaction (32)....

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  • ...Thus much effort is devoted to developing natural drugs to reduce ROS-induced oxidative stress (32)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The BGA team discusses the development of G-15, which aims to address the challenge of “superbugs” in the high-acid environment.
Abstract: グルコサミン塩酸塩を遊離形にし, 37℃インキュベーターで0日から30日間放置褐変した褐変グルコサミン (BGA) の抗酸化性, 還元力, 褐変度, アミノ糖の残存量, pH, 水分量, 全窒素量を, 放置0日から5日間は毎日, 以後5日間の間隔で30日間測定した。一方, 0, 15, 30日間放置褐変したBGAをセファデックスG-15で分画し, 抗酸化性, 還元力, 褐変度, pHについて測定して, 次のような結果を得た。1) 遊離グルコサミンは, 3日間放置後より白色粉末状から褐色ペースト状に急激な変化を示した。2) 最も強い抗酸化性は, 25日間と30日間放置褐変したBGAで認められた。3) BGAのリノール酸に対する抗酸化性は, 褐変度と深い関係を示した。4) 長く放置褐変したBGAは, 分子量が比較的高い領域の褐変生成物質と, 比較的低い領域の褐変生成物質に分画された。5) 長く放置褐変したBGAでは, 高分子の褐変生成物質のフラクションと, 低分子の褐変生成物質のフラクションの中間フラクションに抗酸化性を認めた。

6,976 citations


"In Vitro Protective Ability of Rama..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...A modified method of reducing power as described (21) was considered....

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  • ...The resulting Perl’s Prussian blue was measured at 700 nm, and higher absorbance indicated higher reducing power (21)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This analysis suggests that the total phenols assay by FCR be used to quantify an antioxidant's reducing capacity and the ORAC assay to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, to comprehensively study different aspects of antioxidants.
Abstract: This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply a competitive reaction scheme, in which antioxidant and substrate compete for thermally generated peroxyl radicals through the decomposition of azo compounds. These assays include inhibition of induced low-density lipoprotein autoxidation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and crocin bleaching assays. ET-based assays measure the capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes color when reduced. The degree of color change is correlated with the sample's antioxidant concentrations. ET-based assays include th...

5,354 citations


"In Vitro Protective Ability of Rama..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Addition of one electron to molecular oxygen forms this weak oxidant, which again can generate other harmful ROS such as peroxynitrate (ONOO), peroxyl radical (LOO), singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical (OH), and hydrogen peroxide (13)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The phosphomolybdenum method is routinely applied in the laboratory to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of plant extracts and to determine vitamin E in a variety of grains and seeds, including corn and soybean.

4,644 citations