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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Mitigation of chromatic dispersion electronically in a coherent optical communication system

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated electronic compensation techniques to mitigate chromatic dispersion in a phase modulated optical coherent detection system, which added flexibility to the dynamically routed optical networks.
Abstract: High speed optical fiber transmission performance is severely degraded due to chromatic dispersion in the fiber. Contrary to conventional dispersion compensation techniques by dispersion compensated fiber, in this work electronic compensation techniques are investigated to mitigate chromatic dispersion in a phase modulated optical coherent detection system. Such electronic compensation techniques add flexibility to the dynamically routed optical networks. Performances of electronic mitigation techniques of chromatic dispersion are compared and their applicability limits are evaluated.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of external and direct intensity modulation in radio-over-fiber (RoF) links was investigated and the drawbacks induced by different components of the optical system were analyzed.
Abstract: Radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems comprise light modulation and transmission of millimeter-wave signals over fiber links. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of external and direct intensity modulation in RoF links and to analyze the drawbacks induced by different components of the optical system. In external modulation, the Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM) is used, whereas the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is utilized in direct modulation. Both modulation schemes are tested for a vector modulation format, i.e., the quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), where an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme is used to generate signal subcarriers. The simulations are carried out with the same values of common global parameters for both schemes of intensity modulation. Although VCSEL is a promising device for future RoF systems, the external modulation shows a more robust performance compared with that of VCSEL when implemented with the OFDM modulation technique.

27 citations


Cites background from "Mitigation of chromatic dispersion ..."

  • ...This has been known as chromatic dispersion (CD) in the fiber link and causes distortions in the signals over long distances where different components of the signal have different arrival time delays and different amplitude attenuations [9]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviews and compares various techniques proposed in the literature for compensating fiber dispersion and nonlinearity and the selection criteria for choosing a particular compensating technique in Optical OFDM and WDM systems are presented.
Abstract: Optical fiber based transmission network is the key technology to support high capacity backhaul needs for future wireless communication standards. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transreception, Carrier Aggregation (CA), Co-operative Multi-Point (Co MP) and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for backhaul/backbone are all, state of the art techniques used in most of these standards. The successful implementation of all these technologies requires modification of the network architecture which leads to challenges on backhaul design in terms of capacity and latency requirements. The optical fiber networks implemented in the form of analogue Radio over Fiber (RoF) or digital RoF offers a prospective solution. The performance of analogue RoF suffers from noise and linearity issues and digital RoF is degraded by fiber dispersion and nonlinearity due to high rate of transmission. Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation becomes essential to make the optical fiber backhaul supportive of the emerging wireless technologies. This paper reviews and compares various techniques proposed in the literature for compensating fiber dispersion and nonlinearity. A comprehensive comparison of fiber dispersion and nonlinear effects are summarized. Further, the selection criteria for choosing a particular compensating technique in Optical OFDM and WDM systems have been presented in this work.

9 citations


Cites methods from "Mitigation of chromatic dispersion ..."

  • ..., [47] proposed an effective solution to mitigate the effect of CD using Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm in the electrical domain....

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  • ...[43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [49] [50]...

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2016
TL;DR: The major purpose of study is to evaluate the VCSEL performance in coherent OFDM systems and comparison has been done for improved and conventional V CSEL laser in terms of signal to noise ratio at 100 Gbps.
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is technology comprises of laser modulation and data transmission, over optical fiber. The major purpose of study is to evaluate the VCSEL performance in coherent OFDM systems. Performance of the OFDM system has been analyzed for optimized VCSEL laser and VCSEL conventional laser. Two lasers are studied for different distance varied from 60 Km to 540 Km. Comparison has been done for improved and conventional VCSEL laser in terms of signal to noise ratio at 100 Gbps. Also error vector magnitude is analyzed for improved VCSEL as compared to conventional laser. Error in constellation is less at shorter distance and signals are less deviated from ideal position. However increase in distance causes more deviation in the signal placement to correct slot and error occurs at longer distances.

1 citations


Cites methods from "Mitigation of chromatic dispersion ..."

  • ...The latest wavelength division multiplexing is capable to support tera bits using single mode optical fiber [2]....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the main components of WDM lightwave communication systems, including the following: 1.1 Geometrical-Optics Description, 2.2 Wave Propagation, 3.3 Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers, 4.4 Dispersion-Induced Limitations.
Abstract: Preface. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Historical Perspective. 1.2 Basic Concepts. 1.3 Optical Communication Systems. 1.4 Lightwave System Components. Problems. References. 2 Optical Fibers. 2.1 Geometrical-Optics Description. 2.2 Wave Propagation. 2.3 Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers. 2.4 Dispersion-Induced Limitations. 2.5 Fiber Losses. 2.6 Nonlinear Optical Effects. 2.7 Fiber Design and Fabrication. Problems. References. 3 Optical Transmitters. 3.1 Semiconductor Laser Physics. 3.2 Single-Mode Semiconductor Lasers. 3.3 Laser Characteristics. 3.4 Optical Signal Generation. 3.5 Light-Emitting Diodes. 3.6 Transmitter Design. Problems. References. 4 Optical Receivers. 4.1 Basic Concepts. 4.2 Common Photodetectors. 4.3 Receiver Design. 4.4 Receiver Noise. 4.5 Coherent Detection. 4.6 Receiver Sensitivity. 4.7 Sensitivity Degradation. 4.8 Receiver Performance. Problems. References. 5 Lightwave Systems. 5.1 System Architectures. 5.2 Design Guidelines. 5.3 Long-Haul Systems. 5.4 Sources of Power Penalty. 5.5 Forward Error Correction. 5.6 Computer-Aided Design. Problems. References. 6 Multichannel Systems. 6.1 WDM Lightwave Systems. 6.2 WDM Components. 6.3 System Performance Issues. 6.4 Time-Division Multiplexing. 6.5 Subcarrier Multiplexing. 6.6 Code-Division Multiplexing. Problems. References. 7 Loss Management. 7.1 Compensation of Fiber Losses. 7.2 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. 7.3 Raman Amplifiers. 7.4 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio. 7.5 Electrical Signal-To-Noise Ratio. 7.6 Receiver Sensitivity and Q Factor. 7.7 Role of Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects. 7.8 Periodically Amplified Lightwave Systems. Problems. References. 8 Dispersion Management. 8.1 Dispersion Problem and Its Solution. 8.2 Dispersion-Compensating Fibers. 8.3 Fiber Bragg Gratings. 8.4 Dispersion-Equalizing Filters. 8.5 Optical Phase Conjugation. 8.6 Channels at High Bit Rates. 8.7 Electronic Dispersion Compensation. Problems. References. 9 Control of Nonlinear Effects. 9.1 Impact of Fiber Nonlinearity. 9.2 Solitons in Optical Fibers. 9.3 Dispersion-Managed Solitons. 9.4 Pseudo-linear Lightwave Systems. 9.5 Control of Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects. Problems. References. 10 Advanced Lightwave Systems. 10.1 Advanced Modulation Formats. 10.2 Demodulation Schemes. 10.3 Shot Noise and Bit-Error Rate. 10.4 Sensitivity Degradation Mechanisms. 10.5 Impact of Nonlinear Effects. 10.6 Recent Progress. 10.7 Ultimate Channel Capacity. Problems. References. 11 Optical Signal Processing. 11.1 Nonlinear Techniques and Devices. 11.2 All-Optical Flip-Flops. 11.3 Wavelength Converters. 11.4 Ultrafast Optical Switching. 11.5 Optical Regenerators. Problems. References. A System of Units. B Acronyms. C General Formula for Pulse Broadening. D Software Package.

4,125 citations


"Mitigation of chromatic dispersion ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Traditionally, chromatic dispersion in the fibers is controlled by using dispersion compensated fiber (DCF) [2], [3]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using the analytical solution an upper bound on the number of taps required to compensate chromatic dispersion is obtained, with simulation revealing an improved bound of 2.2 taps per 1000ps/nm for 10.7GBaud data.
Abstract: Digital filters underpin the performance of coherent optical receivers which exploit digital signal processing (DSP) to mitigate transmission impairments. We outline the principles of such receivers and review our experimental investigations into compensation of polarization mode dispersion. We then consider the details of the digital filtering employed and present an analytical solution to the design of a chromatic dispersion compensating filter. Using the analytical solution an upper bound on the number of taps required to compensate chromatic dispersion is obtained, with simulation revealing an improved bound of 2.2 taps per 1000ps/nm for 10.7GBaud data. Finally the principles of digital polarization tracking are outlined and through simulation, it is demonstrated that 100krad/s polarization rotations could be tracked using DSP with a clock frequency of less than 500MHz.

1,201 citations


"Mitigation of chromatic dispersion ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Savory [7] demonstrated the expressions for tap weights and filter length from Eq....

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  • ...Savory [7] have worked on compensation of chromatic dispersion using time domain dispersion compensating filter....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work reviews detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as a hybrid method, and compares modulation methods encoding information in various degrees of freedom (DOF).
Abstract: The drive for higher performance in optical fiber systems has renewed interest in coherent detection. We review detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as a hybrid method. We compare modulation methods encoding information in various degrees of freedom (DOF). Polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude modulation maximizes spectral efficiency and power efficiency, by utilizing all four available DOF, the two field quadratures in the two polarizations. Dual-polarization homodyne or heterodyne downconversion are linear processes that can fully recover the received signal field in these four DOF. When downconverted signals are sampled at the Nyquist rate, compensation of transmission impairments can be performed using digital signal processing (DSP). Linear impairments, including chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion, can be compensated quasi-exactly using finite impulse response filters. Some nonlinear impairments, such as intra-channel four-wave mixing and nonlinear phase noise, can be compensated partially. Carrier phase recovery can be performed using feedforward methods, even when phase-locked loops may fail due to delay constraints. DSP-based compensation enables a receiver to adapt to time-varying impairments, and facilitates use of advanced forward-error-correction codes. We discuss both single- and multi-carrier system implementations. For a given modulation format, using coherent detection, they offer fundamentally the same spectral efficiency and power efficiency, but may differ in practice, because of different impairments and implementation details. With anticipated advances in analog-to-digital converters and integrated circuit technology, DSP-based coherent receivers at bit rates up to 100 Gbit/s should become practical within the next few years.

907 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a unified multiblock nonlinear model for the joint compensation of the impairments in fiber transmission is presented, and it is shown that commonly used techniques for overcoming different impairments are often based on the same principles such as feedback and feedforward control, and time-versus-frequency-domain representations.
Abstract: Next-generation optical fiber systems will employ coherent detection to improve power and spectral efficiency, and to facilitate flexible impairment compensation using digital signal processors (DSPs). In a fully digital coherent system, the electric fields at the input and the output of the channel are available to DSPs at the transmitter and the receiver, enabling the use of arbitrary impairment precompensation and postcompensation algorithms. Linear time-invariant (LTI) impairments such as chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion can be compensated by adaptive linear equalizers. Non-LTI impairments, such as laser phase noise and Kerr nonlinearity, can be compensated by channel inversion. All existing impairment compensation techniques ultimately approximate channel inversion for a subset of the channel effects. We provide a unified multiblock nonlinear model for the joint compensation of the impairments in fiber transmission. We show that commonly used techniques for overcoming different impairments, despite their different appearance, are often based on the same principles such as feedback and feedforward control, and time-versus-frequency-domain representations. We highlight equivalences between techniques, and show that the choice of algorithm depends on making tradeoffs.

207 citations


"Mitigation of chromatic dispersion ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The signal may be received at a very low power level; therefore, digital signal processing (DSP) based coherent optical detection having high detection sensitivity is advantageous over direct detection system and could be a promising technique for chromatic dispersion mitigation by electronic approaches [4]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Schrodinger equation is used to discuss the nonlinear phenomenon of self-phase modulation that leads to the formation of solitons in the presence of anomalous dispersion.
Abstract: This review begins with an historical introduction to the field of nonlinear fiber optics and then focuses on the propagation of short optical pulses inside optical fibers. The underlying nonlinear Schrodinger equation is used to discuss the nonlinear phenomenon of self-phase modulation that leads to the formation of solitons in the presence of anomalous dispersion. Recent work on supercontinuum generation is reviewed with emphasis on the important nonlinear processes, such as the fission of higher-order solitons and intrapulse Raman scattering. Applications of fiber-based supercontinuum sources are also discussed in diverse areas ranging from biomedical imaging to frequency metrology. The last part describes applications resulting from nonlinear phenomena, such as cross-phase modulation, stimulated Raman scattering, and four-wave mixing.

198 citations


"Mitigation of chromatic dispersion ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The propagation of a light pulse in an optical fiber is described by the following nonlinear schrodinger equation (NLSE) [8]....

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  • ...(10) becomes (11) B. Chromatic Dispersion Compensation The propagation of a light pulse in an optical fiber is described by the following nonlinear schrodinger equation (NLSE) [8]....

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