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# Modern heuristic techniques for combinatorial problems

01 Jan 1993-

TL;DR: In this paper, the Lagrangian relaxation and dual ascent tree search were used to solve the graph bisection problem and the graph partition problem, and the traveling salesman problem scheduling problems.

Abstract: Part 1 Introduction: combinatorial problems local and global optima heuristics. Part 2 Simulated annealing: the basic method enhancements and modifications applications conclusions. Part 3 Tabu search: the tabu framework broader aspects of intensification and diversification tabu search applications connections and conclusions. Part 4 Genetic algorithms: basic concepts a simple example extensions and modifications applications conclusions. Part 5 Artificial neural networks: neural networks combinatorial optimization problems the graph bisection problem the graph partition problem the travelling salesman problem scheduling problems deformable templates inequality constraints, the Knapsack problem summary. Part 6 Lagrangian relaxation: overview basic methodology Lagrangian heuristics and problem reduction determination of Lagrange multipliers dual ascent tree search applications conclusions. Part 7 Evaluation of heuristic performance: analytical methods empirical testing statistical inference conclusions.

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TL;DR: This book explores the meta-heuristics approach called tabu search, which is dramatically changing the authors' ability to solve a host of problems that stretch over the realms of resource planning, telecommunications, VLSI design, financial analysis, scheduling, spaceplanning, energy distribution, molecular engineering, logistics, pattern classification, flexible manufacturing, waste management,mineral exploration, biomedical analysis, environmental conservation and scores of other problems.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This book explores the meta-heuristics approach called tabu search, which is dramatically changing our ability to solve a hostof problems that stretch over the realms of resource planning,telecommunications, VLSI design, financial analysis, scheduling, spaceplanning, energy distribution, molecular engineering, logistics,pattern classification, flexible manufacturing, waste management,mineral exploration, biomedical analysis, environmental conservationand scores of other problems. The major ideas of tabu search arepresented with examples that show their relevance to multipleapplications. Numerous illustrations and diagrams are used to clarifyprinciples that deserve emphasis, and that have not always been wellunderstood or applied. The book's goal is to provide ''hands-on' knowledge and insight alike, rather than to focus exclusively eitheron computational recipes or on abstract themes. This book is designedto be useful and accessible to researchers and practitioners inmanagement science, industrial engineering, economics, and computerscience. It can appropriately be used as a textbook in a masterscourse or in a doctoral seminar. Because of its emphasis on presentingideas through illustrations and diagrams, and on identifyingassociated practical applications, it can also be used as asupplementary text in upper division undergraduate courses.
Finally, there are many more applications of tabu search than canpossibly be covered in a single book, and new ones are emerging everyday. The book's goal is to provide a grounding in the essential ideasof tabu search that will allow readers to create successfulapplications of their own. Along with the essentialideas,understanding of advanced issues is provided, enabling researchers togo beyond today's developments and create the methods of tomorrow.

6,373 citations

### Cites background from "Modern heuristic techniques for com..."

...A distinguishing feature of tabu search is embodied in its exploitation of adaptive forms of memory, which equips it to penetrate complexities that often confound alternative approaches....

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TL;DR: This chapter presents the basic schemes of VNS and some of its extensions, and presents five families of applications in which VNS has proven to be very successful.

Abstract: Variable neighborhood search (VNS) is a metaheuristic for solving combinatorial and global optimization problems whose basic idea is a systematic change of neighborhood both within a descent phase to find a local optimum and in a perturbation phase to get out of the corresponding valley. In this chapter we present the basic schemes of VNS and some of its extensions. We then describe recent developments, i.e., formulation space search and variable formulation search. We then present some families of applications in which VNS has proven to be very successful: (1) exact solution of large scale location problems by primal-dual VNS; (2) generation of solutions to large mixed integer linear programs, by hybridization of VNS and local branching; (3) generation of solutions to very large mixed integer programs using VNS decomposition and exact solvers (4) generation of good feasible solutions to continuous nonlinear programs; (5) adaptation of VNS for solving automatic programming problems from the Artificial Intelligence field and (6) exploration of graph theory to find conjectures, refutations and proofs or ideas of proofs.

3,572 citations

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TL;DR: A survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view and introduces a framework, that is called the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other.

Abstract: The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behavior of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.

3,287 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a simple and effective metaheuristic for combinatorial and global optimization, called variable neighborhood search (VNS), is presented, which can easily be implemented using any local search algorithm as a subroutine.

Abstract: Systematic change of neighborhood within a possibly randomized local search algorithm yields a simple and effective metaheuristic for combinatorial and global optimization, called variable neighborhood search (VNS). We present a basic scheme for this purpose, which can easily be implemented using any local search algorithm as a subroutine. Its effectiveness is illustrated by solving several classical combinatorial or global optimization problems. Moreover, several extensions are proposed for solving large problem instances: using VNS within the successive approximation method yields a two-level VNS, called variable neighborhood decomposition search (VNDS); modifying the basic scheme to explore easily valleys far from the incumbent solution yields an efficient skewed VNS (SVNS) heuristic. Finally, we show how to stabilize column generation algorithms with help of VNS and discuss various ways to use VNS in graph theory, i.e., to suggest, disprove or give hints on how to prove conjectures, an area where metaheuristics do not appear to have been applied before.

1,824 citations