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Journal ArticleDOI

Niche overlap and resource partitioning among five sympatric bufonids (Anura, Bufonidae) from northeastern Argentina

01 Jun 2009-Phyllomedusa: Journal of Herpetology (Melopsittacus Publicações Científicas)-Vol. 8, Iss: 1, pp 27-39
TL;DR: Studying the diet behaviors and trophic parameters of sympatric species provides important data for understanding the community and for the development of conservation guidelines.
Abstract: Niche overlap and resource partitioning among five sympatric bufonids (Anura, Bufonidae) from northeastern Argentina. The niche overlap and resource partitioning were analyzed for five sympatric bufonids from Northeastern Argenti- na: Rhinella schneideri, R. bergi, R. fernandezae, R. granulosa, and Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis. The primary objectives were to analyze the diet and pattern of coexistence relative to the microhabitats among species. The bufonids, which are primarily terrestrial, exhibited a preference for small, hard prey such as formicids or coleopterans. The smallest species preferably consumed ants, while R. schneideri preferred beetles. Significant differences were detected for the diets of these five species. In addition, significant overlap in the trophic niche was noted for all species except between R. granulosa and R. schneideri. Studying the diet behaviors and trophic parameters of sympatric species provides important data for understanding the community and for the development of conservation guidelines.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Vaira et al. as mentioned in this paper presented a study of the relationship between Bio-Geography and Ingenieria at the Instituto de Bio and Geociencias del NOA.
Abstract: Fil: Vaira, Marcos. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy. Facultad de Ingenieria. Centro de Investigaciones Basicas y Aplicadas; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico Conicet - Salta. Instituto de Bio y Geociencias del NOA. Universidad Nacional de Salta. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales. Instituto de Bio y Geociencias del NOA; Argentina

140 citations

01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: The diet of Rhinella schneideri is described based on the analysis of the stomach contents of 18 specimens from an area within the Cerrado, Central Brazil, finding 842 items belonging to 11 prey categories, including the plant material category.
Abstract: This study describes the diet of Rhinella schneideri based on the analysis of the stomach contents of 18 specimens from an area within the Cerrado, Central Brazil. We found 842 items belonging to 11 prey categories, including the plant material category. The most important prey categories for R. schneideri were Insect larvae, Coleopteran and Formicidae. Numerical and volumetric niche breadths of R. schneideri were 3.35 and 1.00, respectively. According to its diverse diet and abundance, R. schneideri may be considered a generalist and opportunist species.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Oct 2013-Biologia
TL;DR: The main goals of this study were to determine the richness and diversity of helminth parasites of Rhinella fernandezae at the component and infracommunity levels and determine the ecological implications of different biotic and abiotic factors.
Abstract: The main goals of this study were to determine the richness and diversity of helminth parasites of Rhinella fernandezae at the component and infracommunity levels and determine the ecological implications of different biotic and abiotic factors. Specimens were collected near the city of Corrientes, Corrientes Province, Argentina. Prevalence of infection was 94% in the specimens examined (n = 65). The helminth component community in R. fernandezae in this area was comprised a total of 22 species. Of all helminth species, only three (Catadiscus inopinatus, Cosmocerca podicipinus and C. parva) were dominant (importance value: I > 1.0) in the community. The most abundant species were B. tetracotyloides (d = 0.43) among the larvae and C. podicipinus (d = 0.09) among adult worms. At the infracommunity level, the mean individual species richness (2.28 ± 1.48) (mean ± SD) was no more than 3 helminth species per infected host; the diversity and equitability of helminths were 0.23 ± 0.21 and 0.48 ± 0.38, respectively. The host body size was the main factor in determining the parasite abundance. Species richness was significantly and positively correlated with host body size. The parasite helminth species predominantly showed an overdispersed pattern of distribution. Helminth species showed two negative and significant pairs of covariation and one significant pair of association (P < 0.05). R. fernandezae has a wide variety of parasites relating to the host microhabitat, mobility and feeding habits.

27 citations


Cites background from "Niche overlap and resource partitio..."

  • ...This burrowing toad has an intermediate (between generalist and specialist) diet type dominated by ants and coleopterans, and employs an actively foraging predatory strategy (Duré et al. 2009; Sanchez et al. 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2019-Oikos
TL;DR: This study performs a global-scale literature analysis to build up a database of interactions between anuran communities and their preys, from a wide range of geographical areas, using a network approach and finds that anuran–prey networks are not nested, exhibit low complementary specialization and modularity and high connectance when compared to other types of networks.
Abstract: Life on Earth is supported by an infinite number of interactions among organisms. Species interactions in these networks are influenced by latitude, evolutionary history and species traits. We performed a global-scale literature analysis to build up a database of interactions between anuran communities and their preys, from a wide range of geographical areas, using a network approach. For this purpose, we compiled a total of 55 weighted anuran–prey interaction networks, 39 located in the tropics and 16 in temperate areas. We tested the influence of latitude, as well as anuran taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic richness on network metrics. We found that anuran–prey networks are not nested, exhibit low complementary specialization and modularity and high connectance when compared to other types of networks. The main effects on network metrics were related to latitude, followed by anuran taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic richness, a pattern similar to the emerging in mutualistic networks. Our study is the first integrated analysis of the structural patterns in anuran–prey antagonistic interaction networks in different parts of the world. We suggest that different processes, mediated mainly by latitude, are modeling the architecture of anuran–prey networks across the globe.

22 citations

27 Jan 2017
TL;DR: The results indicate similarities in the diet composition and foraging behavior of P. lisei and P. gracilis, which have similar trophic niche breadth and a high diet overlap.
Abstract: Comparative studies of the diet of ecologically and phylogenetically close-related species assist in understanding the evolutionary processes underlying feeding specialization. The frogs Physalaemus lisei (Braun’s Dwarf Frog) and P. gracilis (Graceful Dwarf Frog) are good models for comparative diet studies because they occur in sympatry in several forest environments of Brazil. In this study we evaluated the gastrointestinal content of 83 individuals of these two species. We registered 12 prey categories in the diet of P. gracilis , and 19 in the diet of P. lisei. Formicidae was the most important prey category in the diet of both species, followed by Coleoptera and Araneae. Despite the high importance of ants in the diet of both species, as assessed by the Index of Relative Importance (IRI = 6469.9 for P. gracilis and 4522.0 for P. lisei ), Coleoptera presented the highest volumetric contribution. Both species presented a similar trophic niche breadth and a high diet overlap (O jk = 0.98). Our results indicate similarities in the diet composition and foraging behavior of P. lisei and P. gracilis .

20 citations


Cites background from "Niche overlap and resource partitio..."

  • ...As we observed in the diet of P. gracilis and P. lisei, Coleoptera and Araneae were also considered important prey to several Neotropical species of Hylidae (Miranda et al., 2006; Rosa et al., 2011), Bufonidae (Duré et al., 2009) and other Leptodactylidae (Maneyro et al., 2004; Oliveira et al., 2015)....

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  • ...…we observed in the diet of P. gracilis and P. lisei, Coleoptera and Araneae were also considered important prey to several Neotropical species of Hylidae (Miranda et al., 2006; Rosa et al., 2011), Bufonidae (Duré et al., 2009) and other Leptodactylidae (Maneyro et al., 2004; Oliveira et al., 2015)....

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  • ..., 2011), Bufonidae (Duré et al., 2009) and other Leptodactylidae (Maneyro et al....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1948
TL;DR: The Mathematical Theory of Communication (MTOC) as discussed by the authors was originally published as a paper on communication theory more than fifty years ago and has since gone through four hardcover and sixteen paperback printings.
Abstract: Scientific knowledge grows at a phenomenal pace--but few books have had as lasting an impact or played as important a role in our modern world as The Mathematical Theory of Communication, published originally as a paper on communication theory more than fifty years ago. Republished in book form shortly thereafter, it has since gone through four hardcover and sixteen paperback printings. It is a revolutionary work, astounding in its foresight and contemporaneity. The University of Illinois Press is pleased and honored to issue this commemorative reprinting of a classic.

10,215 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1986-Ecology
TL;DR: In this article, a new multivariate analysis technique, called canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), was developed to relate community composition to known variation in the environment, where ordination axes are chosen in the light of known environmental variables by imposing the extra restriction that the axes be linear combinations of environmental variables.
Abstract: A new multivariate analysis technique, developed to relate community composition to known variation in the environment, is described. The technique is an extension of correspondence analysis (reciprocal averaging), a popular ordination technique that extracts continuous axes of variation from species occurrence or abundance data. Such ordination axes are typically interpreted with the help of external knowledge and data on environmental variables; this two—step approach (ordination followed by environmental gradient identification) is termed indirect gradient analysis. In the new technique, called canonical correspondence analysis, ordination axes are chosen in the light of known environmental variables by imposing the extra restriction that the axes be linear combinations of environmental variables. In this way community variation can be directly related to environmental variation. The environmental variables may be quantitative or nominal. As many axes can be extracted as there are environmental variables. The method of detrending can be incorporated in the technique to remove arch effects. (Detrended) canonical correspondence analysis is an efficient ordination technique when species have bell—shaped response curves or surfaces with respect to environmental gradients, and is therefore more appropriate for analyzing data on community composition and environmental variables than canonical correlation analysis. The new technique leads to an ordination diagram in which points represent species and sites, and vectors represent environmental variables. Such a diagram shows the patterns of variation in community composition that can be explained best by the environmental variables and also visualizes approximately the "centers" of the species distributions along each of the environmental variables. Such diagrams effectively summarized relationships between community and environment for data sets on hunting spiders, dyke vegetation, and algae along a pollution gradient.

5,689 citations


"Niche overlap and resource partitio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Relationships between microhabitat and diet and foraging strategy for these five species were tested through a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) (Ter Braak 1986, 1987)....

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BookDOI
31 Dec 1968
TL;DR: Professor Levins, one of the leading explorers in the field of integrated population biology, considers the mutual interpenetration and joint evolution of organism and environment, occurring on several levels at once.
Abstract: Professor Levins, one of the leading explorers in the field of integrated population biology, considers the mutual interpenetration and joint evolution of organism and environment, occurring on several levels at once. Physiological and behavioral adaptations to short-term fluctuations of the environment condition the responses of populations to long-term changes and geographic gradients. These in turn affect the way species divide the environments among themselves in communities, and, therefore, the numbers of species which can coexist. Environment is treated here abstractly as pattern: patchiness, variability, range, etc. Populations are studied in their patterns: local heterogeneity, geographic variability, faunistic diversity, etc.

3,628 citations


"Niche overlap and resource partitio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...For numerical data we calculated niche breadth using the Levins Index (Levins 1968): Nb Pij= ∑ −( )2 1 , where Pij represents the probability of finding the item i in the sample j....

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  • ...For numerical data we calculated niche breadth using the Levins Index (Levins 1968):...

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Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jul 1974-Science
TL;DR: To conclude with a list of questions appropriate for studies of resource partitioning, questions this article has related to the theory in a preliminary way.
Abstract: To understand resource partitioning, essentially a community phenomenon, we require a holistic theory that draws upon models at the individual and population level. Yet some investigators are still content mainly to document differences between species, a procedure of only limited interest. Therefore, it may be useful to conclude with a list of questions appropriate for studies of resource partitioning, questions this article has related to the theory in a preliminary way. 1) What is the mechanism of competition? What is the relative importance of predation? Are differences likely to be caused by pressures toward reproductive isolation? 2) Are niches (utilizations) regularly spaced along a single dimension? 3) How many dimensions are important, and is there a tendency for more dimensions to be added as species number increases? 4) Is dimensional separation complementary? 5) Which dimensions are utilized, how do they rank in importance, and why? How do particular dimensions change in rank as species nuimber increases? 6) What is the relation of dimensional separation to difference in phenotypic indicators? To what extent does the functional relation of phenotype to resource characteristics constrain partitioning? 7) What is the distance between mean position of niches, what is the niche standard deviation, and what is the ratio of the two? What is the niche shape?

3,626 citations


"Niche overlap and resource partitio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The degree of niche differentiation among species in the same trophic level depends on many factors, been prey availability one of the most relevant (Pianka 1969, Schoener 1974, 1989)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The topic here is the structure of lizard communities in this somewhat loose sense of the word (perhaps assemblage would be a more accurate description), with emphasis on the niche relationships among such sympatric sets of lizard species, especially as they affect the numbers of species that coexist within lizard communities.
Abstract: Strictly speaking, a community is composed of all the organisms that live together in a particular habitat. Community structure concerns all the various ways in which the members of such a community relate to and interact with one another, as well as community-level properties that emerge from these interactions, such as trophic structure, energy flow, species diversity, relative abundance, and community stabil­ ity. In practice, ecologists are usually unable to study entire communities, but instead interest is often focused on some convenient and tractable subset (usually taxonomic) of a particular community or series of communities. Thus one reads about plant communities, fish communities, bird communities, and so on. My topic here is the structure of lizard communities in this somewhat loose sense of the word (perhaps assemblage would be a more accurate description); my emphasis is on the niche relationships among such sympatric sets of lizard species, especially as they affect the numbers of species that coexist within lizard communities (species den­ sity). So defined, the simplest (and perhaps least interesting) lizard communities would be those that contain but a single species, as, for instance, northern populations of Eumeces msciatus. At the other extreme, probably the most complex lizard commu­ nities are those of the Australian sandridge deserts where as many as 40 different species occur in sympatry (20). Usually species densities of sympatric lizards vary from about 4 or 5 species to perhaps as many as 20. Lizard communities in arid regions are generally richer in species than those in wetter areas; therefore, because almost all ecological studies of entire saurofaunas have been in deserts (l8, 20, 25), this paper emphasizes the structure of desert lizard communities. As such, I review mostly my own work. Other studies on lizard communities in nondesert habitats are, however, cited where appropriate. Historical factors such as degree of isolation and available biotic stocks (particu­ larly the species pools of potential competitors and predators) have profoundly shaped lizard communities. Thus one reason the Australian deserts support such very rich lizard communities may be that competition with, and perhaps predation pressures from, snakes, birds, and mammals are reduced on that continent (20).

2,406 citations


"Niche overlap and resource partitio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We calculated dietary overlaps in two ways by considering the food proportions and the volume of each prey with the formula (Pianka 1973): O P P P P jk ij ik i n ij ik i n i n = = == ∑ ∑∑ 1 2 2 11 , where Pij and Pik are the proportions of utilization of the ith food resource by the jth and kth…...

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  • ...We calculated dietary overlaps in two ways by considering the food proportions and the volume of each prey with the formula (Pianka 1973):...

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