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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.HRTHM.2021.02.021

Physiology-based electrocardiographic criteria for left bundle branch capture

04 Mar 2021-Heart Rhythm (Elsevier)-Vol. 18, Iss: 6, pp 935-943
Abstract: Background During left bundle branch (LBB) area pacing, it is important to confirm that capture of the LBB, and not just capture of only adjacent left ventricular (LV) myocardium, has been achieved. Objective The purpose of this study was to establish electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria for LBB capture. We hypothesized that because LBB pacing results in physiological depolarization of the LV, then the native QRS can serve as a reference for diagnosis of LBB capture in the same patient. Methods Only patients with evidence of LBB capture (QRS morphology transition) were included. Several QRS characteristics were compared between the native rhythm and different types of LBB area capture. Results A total of 357 ECGs (124 patients) were analyzed: 118 with native rhythm, 124 with nonselective LBB capture, 69 with selective LBB capture, and 46 with LV septal capture. Our hypotheses that during LBB capture the paced V6 R-wave peak time (RWPT; measured from QRS onset) equals the native V6 RWPT and that the paced V6 RWPT (measured from the stimulus) equals the LBB potential to V6 R-wave peak interval were positively validated. Criteria based on these rules had sensitivity and specificity of 88.2%–98.0% and 85.7%–95.4%, respectively. Moreover, 100% specific V6 RWPT cutoff for LBB capture diagnosis in patients with narrow QRS/right bundle branch block was determined to be 74 ms. Conclusion We showed equivalency of LV activation times on ECG during native and paced LBB conduction. Therefore, if V6 RWPT is longer during pacing, this finding is indicative of lack of LBB capture.

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Topics: QRS complex (51%), Right bundle branch block (51%)
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17 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.HRTHM.2021.04.025
Karol Curila1, Pavel Jurák2, Marek Jastrzębski3, Frits W. Prinzen4  +15 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Aug 2021-Heart Rhythm
Abstract: Background Nonselective His-bundle pacing (nsHBp), nonselective left bundle branch pacing (nsLBBp), and left ventricular septal myocardial pacing (LVSP) are recognized as physiological pacing techniques. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare differences in ventricular depolarization between these techniques using ultra-high-frequency electrocardiography (UHF-ECG). Methods In patients with bradycardia, nsHBp, nsLBBp (confirmed concomitant left bundle branch [LBB] and myocardial capture), and LVSP (pacing in left ventricular [LV] septal position without proven LBB capture) were performed. Timings of ventricular activations in precordial leads were displayed using UHF-ECG, and electrical dyssynchrony (e-DYS) was calculated as the difference between the first and last activation. Duration of local depolarization (Vd) was determined as width of the UHF-QRS complex at 50% of its amplitude. Results In 68 patients, data were collected during nsLBBp (35), LVSP (96), and nsHBp (55). nsLBBp resulted in larger e-DYS than did LVSP and nsHBp [– 24 ms (–28;–19) vs –12 ms (–16;–9) vs 10 ms (7;14), respectively; P Conclusion nslbbp preserves physiological LV depolarization but increases interventricular electrical dyssynchrony. LV lateral wall depolarization during LVSP is prolonged, but interventricular synchrony is preserved.

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Topics: Electrocardiography (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.33963/KP.15914
Marek Jastrzębski1, Paweł Moskal1Institutions (1)
30 Mar 2021-Kardiologia Polska

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.HRTHM.2021.07.057
Marek Jastrzębski1, Paweł Moskal1, Wim Huybrechts, Karol Curila2  +8 moreInstitutions (6)
30 Jul 2021-Heart Rhythm
Abstract: Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) based on the conventional biventricular pacing (BiV-CRT) technique sometimes results in broad QRS complex and suboptimal response. Objective We aimed to assess the feasibility and outcomes of CRT based on left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP, in lieu of the right ventricular lead) combined with coronary venous left ventricular pacing in an international multicenter study. Methods LBBAP-optimized CRT (LOT-CRT) was attempted in nonconsecutive patients with CRT indications. Addition of the LBBA (or coronary venous) lead was at the discretion of the implanting physician, who was guided by suboptimal paced QRS complex, and/or on clinical grounds. Results LOT-CRT was successful in 91 of 112 patients (81%). The baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 70 ± 11 years, female 22 (20%), left ventricular ejection fraction 28.7% ± 9.8%, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 62 ± 9 mm, N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide level 5821 ± 8193 pg/mL, left bundle branch block 47 (42%), nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay 25 (22%), right ventricular pacing 26 (23%), and right bundle branch block 14 (12%). The procedure characteristics were as follows: mean fluoroscopy time 27.3 ± 22 minutes, LBBAP capture threshold 0.8 ± 0.5 V @ 0.5 ms, and R-wave amplitude 10 mV. LOT-CRT resulted in significantly greater narrowing of QRS complex from 182 ± 25 ms at baseline to 144 ± 22 ms (P Conclusion LOT-CRT is feasible and safe and provides greater electrical resynchronization as compared with BiV-CRT and could be an alternative, especially when only suboptimal electrical resynchronization is obtained with BiV-CRT. Randomized controlled trials comparing LOT-CRT and BiV-CRT are needed.

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1 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACEP.2021.07.007
Abstract: Objectives This study aims to assess the safety and feasibility of achieving His-Purkinje conduction system pacing (HPCSP) in consecutive patients with atrioventricular block (AVB) and to describe the site of conduction block in patients with infranodal AVB. Background HPCSP has evolved as the preferred form of physiologic pacing. Left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP) has emerged as an effective alternative to His bundle pacing (HBP). Methods Consecutive patients with AVB referred for pacemaker implantation were included in the study. HBP or LBBAP was attempted in all patients. Site of conduction block was identified as nodal or infranodal (intra-Hisian or infra-Hisian) AVB. Results HPCSP was attempted in 333 consecutive patients with AVB and was successful in 322 (97%) patients. HBP was achieved in 140 patients, LBBAP in 179 patients, and both in 3 patients. Site of conduction block was nodal in 55% and infranodal in 45% (intra-Hisian 89%; infra-Hisian 4%; indeterminate 7%). QRS duration at baseline was 111±27 versus 129±31 (P Conclusions HPCSP pacing was successfully performed in 97% of unselected patients with AVB irrespective of the site of conduction block. True infra-Hisian block (distal His-Purkinje conduction disease) is rare. HBP and LBBAP were complementary in achieving stable and low capture thresholds.

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1 Citations


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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.HRTHM.2019.06.016
Weijian Huang1, Xueying Chen2, Lan Su1, Shengjie Wu1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
22 Jun 2019-Heart Rhythm

160 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.HRTHM.2019.05.011
01 Dec 2019-Heart Rhythm
Abstract: Background His bundle pacing (HBP) is the most physiologic form of pacing but associated with higher thresholds and lower success in patients with His-Purkinje conduction disease. Recent reports have described transvenous left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP). Objective We aimed to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and the electrophysiologic and echocardiographic characteristics of LBBAP. Methods Patients requiring pacing for bradycardia or heart failure indications (failed left ventricular [LV] lead) were prospectively enrolled. LBBAP was performed with a Medtronic 3830 lead. Presence of left bundle branch (LBB) potential, paced QRS morphology/duration, and peak LV activation time (pLVAT) were recorded at implant. Pacing threshold and sensing was assessed at implant and follow-up. Echocardiography was performed to assess the approximate lead location and impact on tricuspid valve function. Results LBBAP was successful in 93 of 100 (93%) patients. Mean age was 75 ± 13 years; men 69%, left bundle branch block 24%, right bundle branch block 25%, intraventricular conduction defect 8%. Indications for pacing were atrioventricular (AV) block 54%, sinus node dysfunction 23%, AV node ablation 7%, cardiac resynchronization therapy 11%, HBP lead failure 7%. Baseline QRS duration was 133 ± 35 ms. Paced QRS duration was 136 ± 17 ms. LBB potentials were observed in 63 patients with left bundle branch - ventricle (LBB-V) interval of 27 ± 6 ms. pLVAT was 75 ± 16 ms. Pacing threshold at implant was 0.6 ± 0.4 V @ 0.5 ms and R waves were 10 ± 6 mV and remained stable at median follow-up of 3 months. The lead depth in the septum was approximately 1.4 ± 0.23 cm. Conclusions LBBAP was feasible in a high percentage of patients with low thresholds during acute follow-up. HBP and LBBAP may significantly increase the overall success of physiologic pacing.

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Topics: Right bundle branch block (66%), Left bundle branch block (65%), QRS complex (57%) ... read more

135 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JCE.14681
Abstract: Cardiac pacing is the only effective therapy for patients with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia. Traditional right ventricular apical pacing causes electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony resulting in left ventricular dysfunction, recurrent heart failure, and atrial arrhythmias. Physiological pacing activates the normal cardiac conduction, thereby providing synchronized contraction of ventricles. Though His bundle pacing (HBP) acts as an ideal physiological pacing modality, it is technically challenging and associated with troubleshooting issues during follow-up. Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) has been suggested as an effective alternative to overcome the limitations of HBP as it provides low and stable pacing threshold, lead stability, and correction of distal conduction system disease. This paper will focus on the implantation technique, troubleshooting, clinical implications, and a review of published literature of LBBP.

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37 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JCE.14352
Abstract: Introduction Permanent deep septal stimulation with capture of the left bundle branch (LBB) enables maintenance/restoration of the physiological activation of the left ventricle. However, it is almost always accompanied by the simultaneous engagement of the local septal myocardium, resulting in a fused (nonselective) QRS complex, therefore, confirmation of LBB capture remains difficult. Methods We hypothesized that programmed extrastimulus technique can differentiate nonselective LBB capture from myocardial-only capture as the effective refractory period (ERP) of the myocardium is different from the ERP of the LBB. Consecutive patients undergoing pacemaker implantation underwent programmed stimulation delivered from the lead implanted in a deep septal position. Responses to programmed stimulation were categorized on the basis of sudden change in the QRS morphology of the extrastimuli, observed when ERP of LBB or myocardium was encroached upon, as: "myocardial," "selective LBB," or nondiagnostic (unequivocal change of QRS morphology). Results Programmed deep septal stimulation was performed 269 times in 143 patients; in every patient with the use of a basic drive train of 600 milliseconds and in 126 patients also during intrinsic rhythm. The average septal-myocardial refractory period was shorter than the LBB refractory period: 263.0 ± 34.4 vs 318.0 ± 37.4 milliseconds. Responses diagnostic for LBB capture ("myocardial" or "selective LBB") were observed in 114 (79.7%) of patients. Conclusions A novel maneuver for the confirmation of LBB capture during deep septal stimulation was developed and found to enable definitive diagnosis by visualization of both components of the paced QRS complex: selective paced LBB QRS and myocardial-only paced QRS.

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Topics: QRS complex (51%)

31 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACEP.2020.08.015
Abstract: Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcomes of left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP) in patients eligible for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in an international, multicenter, collaborative study. Background CRT using biventricular pacing is effective in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB). LBBAP has been reported as an alternative option for CRT. Methods LBBAP was attempted in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) Results LBBAP was attempted in 325 patients, and CRT was successfully achieved in 277 (85%) (mean age 71 ± 12 years, 35% women, ischemic cardiomyopathy in 44%). QRS configuration at baseline was LBBB in 39% and non-LBBB in 46%. Procedure and fluoroscopy duration were 105 ± 54 and 19 ± 15 min, respectively. LBBAP threshold and R-wave amplitudes were 0.6 ± 0.3 V at 0.5 ms and 10.6 ± 6 mV at implantation and remained stable during mean follow-up of 6 ± 5 months. LBBAP resulted in significant QRS narrowing from 152 ± 32 to 137 ± 22 ms (p Conclusions LBBAP is feasible and safe and provides an alternative option for CRT. LBBAP provides remarkably low and stable pacing thresholds and was associated with improved clinical and echocardiographic outcomes.

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Topics: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (61%), Left bundle branch block (61%), QRS complex (54%) ... read more

27 Citations