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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ATMOS12030332

Real-World Contribution of Electrification and Replacement Scenarios to the Fleet Emissions in West Midland Boroughs, UK

04 Mar 2021-Atmosphere (MDPI AG)-Vol. 12, Iss: 3, pp 332
Abstract: This study reports the likely real-world effects of fleet replacement with electric vehicles (EVs) and higher efficiency EURO 6 vehicles on the exhaustive emissions of NOx, PM, and CO2 in the seven boroughs of the West Midlands (WM) region, UK. National fleet composition data, local EURO distributions, and traffic compositions were used to project vehicle fleet compositions for different roads in each borough. A large dataset of real-world emission factors including over 90,000 remote-sensing measurements, obtained from remote sensing campaigns in five UK cities, was used to parameterize the emission profiles of the studied scenarios. Results show that adoption of the fleet electrification approach would have the highest emission reduction potential on urban roads in WM boroughs. It would result in maximum reductions ranging from 35.0 to 37.9%, 44.3 to 48.3%, and 46.9 to 50.3% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. In comparison, the EURO 6 replacement fleet scenario would lead to reductions ranging from 10.0 to 10.4%, 4.0 to 4.2%, and 6.0 to 6.4% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. The studied mitigation scenarios have higher efficacies on motorways compared to rural and urban roads because of the differences in traffic fleet composition. The findings presented will help policymakers choose climate and air quality mitigation strategies.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IATSSR.2021.03.001
13 Mar 2021-Iatss Research
Abstract: Traffic congestion, dominated by private mobility, reveals not only negative impacts on road safety and the environment, but also on community cohesion. With the global COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2COVID-19 (COVID-19) epidemic, there is an urgent need for social isolation and the use of individual private transport as per the approved health guidelines. Urban transport, especially public transportation (PT), is among the primary sectors affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, novel alternatives for competitive PT services still have to be provided to remain meeting the socio-economic and ecological PT challenges. In this respect, sharing PT vehicles carrying passengers (shared freight-PT) could exploit a significant residual capacity as absorptive capacity is actually reduced. However, such use is based on a large-scale mutualization. The idea of integrating freight in passenger transit networks could be efficient within a Physical Internet (PI or π) framework for improving system monitoring, operational performance and, user comfort. This paper explores the major trends in the theory and practice of shared transport systems, in terms of passengers and freight, and suggests a PI conceptual framework to check if we could promote such logistics. In exploring the PI approach, a number of proposals appear providing answers and advance researches towards shared freight-PT.

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Topics: Private transport (58%), Physical Internet (55%), Public transport (53%) ... read more

10 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2021.128101
Abstract: The feasibility of electrifying transport while reducing energy coming from non-renewable sources remains unknown. This study analyzes the current and future impacts caused by uncontrolled electric vehicle charging activities on the electrical grid, in terms of the possibility of having an undetermined number of electric vehicles plugged in at the same time. The results obtained show that charging battery electric vehicles could heavily impact the daily request of electric power, and the peak time for electricity consumption would become unmanageable. In particular, the Spanish grid is vulnerable due to the government's intention to achieve a gradually greater proportion of renewable energy through the closure of fossil fuel and nuclear power stations. This study proposes and evaluates a set of scenarios by developing a simplified stochastic model that considers the uncertainty involved in the problem. Electromobility can only be successful if the power system is considered. The evolution from the current situation to a series of future electrified mobility scenarios will heavily impact not only the annual energy consumption but also the daily electric power supply. The results show that the development of a charging network that allows vehicle batteries to be recharged during working hours seems to be the most suitable solution, while the uncontrolled development and management of a fast-recharging network would be the worst strategy.

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Topics: Electric power (65%), Electric vehicle (64%), Battery electric vehicle (63%) ... read more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2021.117396
Abstract: Urban transportation is one of the leading causes of air pollution in big cities. In-use emissions of vehicles are higher than the emission control certification levels. The current study uses a roadside remote sensing emission monitoring campaign to investigate (a) fraction of high emitters in the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet and their contributions to the total emissions, (b) emission inspection (I/M) programs' effectiveness, and (c) alternate fuel (natural gas) encouragement policy. LDVs consist of passenger or freight transport vehicles with four wheels equivalent to classes M1 and N1 of European union vehicle classifications. The motivation is to assess the current emission inspection program's success rate and study the impact of the increased natural gas vehicle market share policy. It is also meant to present and validate remote sensing as a possible backup method to the current I/M program. The emission remote sensing campaign was conducted to measure emissions of CO, HC, and NO of the LDV fleet. Fleet age, engine size, and fuel type (gasoline or natural gas) were extracted and correlated with emissions. It was found that CO and HC emissions are five times higher for cars more than fifteen years old of age compared to those less than five years old. Analyses of high-emitters showed that almost 20% of the fleet were high-emitters and responsible for roughly half of CO, HC, and NO emissions. The correlation between the I/M program and the remote sensing to identify high-emitters was weak. Which indicates the need for an improved I/M program. It shows that even a limited remote sensing campaign is beneficial as a complementary monitoring tool to the I/M program. The study showed the same fraction of high-emitters in natural gas (methane) vehicles, despite the national policies to increase natural gas vehicle fraction in the market for reduced emissions.

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Topics: European union (53%), Natural gas vehicle (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ESD.2021.08.003
C.J. Abraham1, A.J. Rix1, Innocent Ndibatya1, Innocent Ndibatya2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Minibus taxi public transport is a seemingly chaotic phenomenon in the developing cities of the Global South with unique mobility and operational characteristics. Eventually this ubiquitous fleet of minibus taxis is expected to transition to electric vehicles, which will result in an additional energy burden on Africa's already fragile electrical grids. This paper examines the electrical energy demands of this possible evolution, and presents a generic simulation environment to assess the grid impact and charging opportunities. We used GPS tracking and spatio-temporal data to assess the energy requirements of nine electric minibus taxis as well as the informal and formal stops at which the taxis can recharge. Given the region's abundant sunshine, we modelled a grid-connected solar photovoltaic charging system to determine how effectively PV may be used to offset the additional burden on the electrical grid. The mean energy demand of the taxis was 213kWh/d, resulting in an average efficiency of 0.93kWh/km. The stopping time across taxis, a proxy for charging opportunity, ranged from 7.7 h/d to 10.6 h/d. The energy supplied per surface area of PV to offset the charging load of a taxi while stopping, ranged from 0.38 to 0.90kWh/m2 per day. Our simulator, which is publicly available, and the results will allow traffic planners and grid operators to assess and plan for looming electric vehicle roll-outs.

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Topics: Taxis (59%), Electrical grid (52%), Electric vehicle (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2021.118584
Ajit Singh1, Suzanne Bartington1, Congbo Song1, Omid Ghaffarpasand1  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Emergency responses to the COVID-19 pandemic led to major changes in travel behaviours and economic activities in 2020. Machine learning provides a reliable approach for assessing the contribution of these changes to air quality. This study investigates impacts of health protection measures upon air pollution and traffic emissions and estimates health and economic impacts arising from these changes during two national ‘lockdown’ periods in Oxford, UK. Air quality improvements were most marked during the first lockdown with reductions in observed NO2 concentrations of 38% (SD ± 24.0%) at roadside and 17% (SD ± 5.4%) at urban background locations. Observed changes in PM2.5, PM10 and O3 concentrations were not significant during first or second lockdown. Deweathering and detrending analyses revealed a 22% (SD ± 4.4%) reduction in roadside NO2 and 2% (SD ± 7.1%) at urban background with no significant changes in the second lockdown. Deweathered-detrended PM2.5 and O3 concentration changes were not significant, but PM10 increased in the second lockdown only. City centre traffic volume reduced by 69% and 38% in the first and second lockdown periods. Buses and passenger cars were the major contributors to NO2 emissions, with relative reductions of 56% and 77% respectively during the first lockdown, and less pronounced changes in the second lockdown. While car and bus NO2 emissions decreased during both lockdown periods, the overall contribution from buses increased relative to cars in the second lockdown. Sustained NO2 emissions reduction consistent with the first lockdown could prevent 48 lost life-years among the city population, with economic benefits of up to £2.5 million. Our findings highlight the critical importance of decoupling emissions changes from meteorological influences to avoid overestimation of lockdown impacts and indicate targeted emissions control measures will be the most effective strategy for achieving air quality and public health benefits in this setting.

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Topics: Population (51%)

References
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40 results found



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENPOL.2012.10.046
Mikael Höök1, Xu Tang2Institutions (2)
01 Jan 2013-Energy Policy
Abstract: Future scenarios with significant anthropogenic climate change also display large increases in world production of fossil fuels, the principal CO2 emission source. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has also been identified as a future challenge. This chapter reviews the connection between these two issues and concludes that limits to availability of fossil fuels will set a limit for mankind’s ability to affect the climate. However, this limit is unclear as various studies have reached quite different conclusions regarding future atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by fossil fuel limitations.It is concluded that the current set of emission scenarios used by the IPCC and others is perforated by optimistic expectations on future fossil fuel production that are improbable or even unrealistic. The current situation, where climate models largely rely on emission scenarios detached from the reality of supply and its inherent problems is problematic. In fact, it may even mislead planners and politicians into making decisions that mitigate one problem but make the other one worse. It is important to understand that the fossil energy problem and the anthropogenic climate change problem are tightly connected and need to be treated as two interwoven challenges necessitating a holistic solution.

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Topics: Global warming (54%), Climate change (53%), Fossil fuel (51%) ... read more

800 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31597-5
15 Oct 2016-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing—particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases. We highlight targets for interventions and recommendations for pollution reduction through industrial upgrading, vehicle and fuel renovation, improvements in public transportation, lowering of personal exposure, mitigation of the direct effects of air pollution through healthy city development, intervention at population-based level (systematic health education, intensive and individualised intervention, pre-emptive measures, and rehabilitation), and improvement in air quality. The implementation of a national environmental protection policy has become urgent.

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Topics: Air quality index (63%), Pollution (54%), Air pollution (52%) ... read more

434 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-014-3696-8
Abstract: Traffic-related sources have been recognized as a significant contributor of particulate matter particularly within major cities. Exhaust and non-exhaust traffic-related sources are estimated to contribute almost equally to traffic-related PM10 emissions. Non-exhaust particles can be generated either from non-exhaust sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the form of deposited material at the roadside and become resuspended due to traffic-induced turbulence. Among non-exhaust sources, brake wear can be a significant particulate matter (PM) contributor, particularly within areas with high traffic density and braking frequency. Studies mention that in urban environments, brake wear can contribute up to 55 % by mass to total non-exhaust traffic-related PM10 emissions and up to 21 % by mass to total traffic-related PM10 emissions, while in freeways, this contribution is lower due to lower braking frequency. As exhaust emissions control become stricter, relative contributions of non-exhaust sources—and therefore brake wear—to traffic-related emissions will become more significant and will raise discussions on possible regulatory needs. The aim of the present literature review study is to present the state-of-the-art of the different aspects regarding PM resulting from brake wear and provide all the necessary information in terms of importance, physicochemical characteristics, emission factors and possible health effects.

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Topics: Brake (54%)

381 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENPOL.2012.04.001
Timothy J. Foxon1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2013-Energy Policy
Abstract: Achieving long-term targets for greenhouse gas emissions reductions, such as the UK's legally-binding target of reducing its emissions by 80% by 2050, will require a transition in systems for meeting and shaping energy service demands, involving radical substitution to low-carbon supply technologies and improvements in end-use energy efficiency. This paper describes the development and high-level analysis of a set of transition pathways to a UK low carbon electricity system, explaining key features of the core pathways developed and the distinctiveness and value of the approach. The pathways use an ‘action space’ concept to explore the dynamic interactions between choices made by actors, which are influenced by the competing governance ‘framings’ or ‘logics’ that different actors pursue. The paper sets out three core transition pathways – Market Rules , Central Co-ordination and Thousand Flowers , in which market, government and civil society logics respectively dominate. It summarises the key technological and institutional changes in these pathways, and the roles of actors in bringing these about. This leads to an identification of the key risks to the realisation of each of the pathways, and of the challenges for individuals, businesses, social movements and policy-makers in taking action to bring them about and sustain them.

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310 Citations