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Settlement Patterns and Cultural Interactions in Northern Mesopotamia (2nd - 4th century CE)

02 Apr 2013-
TL;DR: In this article, a study about the Roman Near East and the relations and interactions with the Eastern neighbours and the local populations is presented, with the starting point for the comprehension of such dynamics must be the identification of the points of interactions as well as the differences, always bearing in mind the hybridisation that occurred.
Abstract: The present study has been conceived on the trails of those works about the Roman Near East and the relations and interactions with the Eastern neighbours and the local populations. In more recent times, the on-going excavations projects in the area and the new notions of interaction and integration related to the Roman presence have made relevant further steps in the understanding of the topic. Considering exclusively Roman or, at the contrary, exclusively Parthian (or Sasanian) a site means, nowadays, ignoring the dynamics that characterized the whole area in the period at issue. It is doubtless that the starting point for the comprehension of such dynamics must be the identification of the points of interactions as well as the differences, always bearing in mind the hybridisation that occurred. The term hybridisation indeed, even if it is a modern word, perfectly fits with the mixture of races, religions and social institutions that shaped the Near East in the period from the Hellenistic period to the late 4th century CE. The theory is quite easily applicable in the major centres (Nisibis, Singara, Hatra), where the abundance of data is widely used to identify this kind of hybridisation such as the distinctive and unmistakable feature of a given culture as well, while it appears to be slightly tougher to track in the minor settlements. The lack of historical and archaeological evidence, indeed, affects our knowledge about the rural landscape and the countryside itself. Some of the minor sites mentioned in the literary sources are still not only unexcavated, but quite often unidentified too, while the fewer where excavation works have been conducted are the same sites almost practically unknown to the ancient sources (see the specifica case of Tell Barri). Notwithstanding this lack of evidence on both sides the countryside and the rural landscape still remains a keystone for the understanding of the Roman occupation in the area, as well as the organization and administration of the newly acquired territory after the severian annexation. The integration of the archaeological data with the known literary and epigraphic evidence could be the only way through which the presence of Rome beyond the Euphrates could be better understood. The region itself, indeed, represents one of the most archaeologically important areas of the world and thus the isolation of a given event in a specific chronological period forcedly needs more elements than elsewhere.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the number of cylinder seals and coins sold on the Internet has increased steadily since 2011, reaching a peak in 2016-17, and that the trade in Iraqi and Syrian antiquities has shifted from big-ticket items sold in traditional brick-and-mortar shops to small items readily available on the internet for modest prices.
Abstract: Discussions about looted antiquities often focus on large, culturally and monetarily valuable items. Nevertheless, it is clear that mundane small finds, which sell for relatively small amounts, account for a large portion of the global market in antiquities. This article highlights two types of small artifacts—namely, cylinder seals and coins, presumed to come from Syria and Iraq and offered for sale by online vendors. We argue that the number of cylinder seals and coins sold on the Internet has increased steadily since 2011, reaching a peak in 2016–17. This shows that the trade in Iraqi and Syrian antiquities has shifted from big-ticket items sold in traditional brick-and-mortar shops to small items readily available on the Internet for modest prices. The continuing growth of the online market in antiquities is having a devastating effect on the archaeological sites in Iraq and Syria as increasing demand fuels further looting in the region.

10 citations

Book
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: Aramese votiefinscripties gevonden in en rond de Syrisch-Mesopotaamse steppe bevatten dikwijls de formule 'l hyy, voor het leven van'.
Abstract: Aramese votiefinscripties gevonden in en rond de Syrisch-Mesopotaamse steppe bevatten dikwijls de formule 'l hyy, voor het leven van. Het merendeel ervan dateert uit de eerste drie eeuwen AD. Aangebracht op beelden, altaren, bouwwerken of delen daarvan, en doorgaans geplaatst in tempels of andere locaties met een sacrale functie, wordt met behulp van de formule een relatie gelegd tussen de dedicant(en) en degene(n) voor wiens (wier) leven het betreffende object op die plaats wordt opgericht. ... Zie: Samenvatting

3 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a catalogue of sites classiques and byzantins and an atlas archeologique du Moyen-Euphrate, base on the digitalisation d'images satellite.
Abstract: Ce travail replace l'etude de l'occupation de la vallee de l'Euphrate entre la fin du IVe s. Av. N. E. Et le milieu du VIIIe s. Dans une perspective resolument archeologique. Il s'agit d'abord de comprendre les relations entre le contexte environnemental, les limites climatiques et les contraintes topographiques de cette region, et les choix d'implantations humaines depuis le Neolithique jusqu'a la periode ottomane. Nous avons presente les sources textuelles et documentaires qui nous renseignent sur le Moyen-Euphrate classique et byzantin et notamment un premier bilan des campagnes d'urgence liees a la mise en eau des barrages turcs et syriens entre 1968 et 2000. Nous avons concu un catalogue des sites classiques et byzantins et un atlas archeologique du Moyen-Euphrate, base sur la digitalisation d'images satellite. Ces documents nous ont permis de mettre en evidence les caracteristiques, l'evolution et la repartition de l'occupation de la vallee depuis la periode hellenistique jusqu'a la periode byzantine.

2 citations

References
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Jason Ur1
TL;DR: This paper showed how declassified military photographs of north-eastern Syria are revealing the routeways, and by inference the agricultural systems of Mesopotamia in the early Bronze Age, by inferring the agricultural system from military photographs.
Abstract: Middle-eastern archaeologists are winning new information from declassified military photographs taken 25 years ago. This study shows how pictures of north-eastern Syria are revealing the routeways, and by inference the agricultural systems of Mesopotamia in the early Bronze Age.

229 citations


"Settlement Patterns and Cultural In..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The presence of this kind of wares, with slightly different features such as the flatcollared rim or the hole-mouth jar with grooved rim, is also attested in other areas of the region, as the surveys carried out by Wilkinson and Tucker (1997) and Ur (2010) have proved....

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  • ...On the use of these images in archaeological contexts see UR 2003 and UR 2010....

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  • ...465 The “Working Ceramic Typology” is so far unpublished and, even if started by Jason Ur, sees the continous contribution of several scholars who deal with or dealt with the survey projects in the area Major contributions to the typology come from these past and on-going projects: Iraqi North Jazira Project, Tell Beydar Survey 1997-1998, Tell Hamoukar Survey 1999-2001, Tell Brak Survey 2002-2005, Hirbermedon Tepe Survey 2007-2011, Erbil Plain Archaeological Survey 2012, Land of Nineveh Regional Survey 2012. 466 In general see Howard 2006; the application of standard and innovative methods to the Mesopotamian landscape is well treated in Ur 2010. 467 An interesting volume on the matter and the differences between East and West has been published by Susan ALCOCK and John CHERRY (2004). In particuar should be considered in that same volume the contribution of WILKINSON, CASANA and UR (2004, see references)....

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Book
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: The role of climate change in the origins of agriculture in the Southern Levant has been investigated in this paper, where the authors present a tool for understanding Paleoenvironments of the Near East.
Abstract: 1 Holocent Climate and Society 2 Tools for Understanding Paleoenvironments in the Southern Levant 3 Land and History: Introduction to the Modern Landscape and Historical Framework 4 Paleoenvironments of the Near East: The Retreat of the Pleistocene 5 Holocene Paleoenvironments of the Near East 6 From Hunter-Gatherers to Village Farmers: The Role of Climate Change in the Origins of Agriculture 7 Early Complex Societies: Climate Change and Collapse of Early Bronze Age Societies 8 Empires in the Desert 9 Civilizing Climate

205 citations

Book
21 Mar 2003
TL;DR: The only critical guide to the theory and method of Mesopotamian archaeology from its origins in the nineteenth century up to the present day is as mentioned in this paper, which evaluates the theories, methods, approaches and history of Mesoamerican archaeology.
Abstract: The only critical guide to the theory and method of Mesopotamian archaeology, this innovative volume evaluates the theories, methods, approaches and history of Mesopotamian archaeology from its origins in the nineteenth century up to the present day. Ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), was the original site of many of the major developments in human history, such as farming, the rise of urban literate societies and the first great empires of Akkad, Babylonia and Assyria. Dr. Matthews places the discipline within its historical and social context, and explains how archaeologists conduct their research through excavation, survey and other methods. In four fundamental chapters, he uses illustrated case-studies to show how archaeologists have approached central themes such as: * the shift from hunting to farming * complex societies * empires and imperialism * everyday life. This will be both an ideal introductory work and useful as background reading on a wide range of courses.

102 citations