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Journal ArticleDOI

The fictions of language and the languages of fiction: The linguistic representation of speech and consciousness

01 Nov 1995-Journal of Pragmatics (Routledge)-Vol. 24, Iss: 5, pp 557-563
TL;DR: This article presented a detailed analysis of free indirect discourse as it relates to narrative theory, and the crucial problematic of how speech and thought are represented in fiction, based on the insights of Ann Banfield's Unspeakable Sentences.
About: This article is published in Journal of Pragmatics.The article was published on 1995-11-01. It has received 301 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Free indirect speech & Narrative.
Citations
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Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this article, the development of modal verbs with discourse marker function and constructions of performative verbs and social deictics is discussed. But the focus of this paper is not on the semantic change.
Abstract: List of figures Preface and acknowledgements Conventions List of abbreviations 1. The framework 2. Prior and current work on semantic change 3. The development of modal verbs 4. The development of adverbials with discourse marker function 5. The development of performative verbs and constructions 6. The development of social deictics 7. Conclusion Primary references Secondary references Index of languages Index of names Index of subjects.

1,009 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article shows that the density of subjectivity clues in the surrounding context strongly affects how likely it is that a word is subjective, and it provides the results of an annotation study assessing the subjectivity of sentences with high-density features.
Abstract: Subjectivity in natural language refers to aspects of language used to express opinions, evaluations, and speculations. There are numerous natural language processing applications for which subjectivity analysis is relevant, including information extraction and text categorization. The goal of this work is learning subjective language from corpora. Clues of subjectivity are generated and tested, including low-frequency words, collocations, and adjectives and verbs identified using distributional similarity. The features are also examined working together in concert. The features, generated from different data sets using different procedures, exhibit consistency in performance in that they all do better and worse on the same data sets. In addition, this article shows that the density of subjectivity clues in the surrounding context strongly affects how likely it is that a word is subjective, and it provides the results of an annotation study assessing the subjectivity of sentences with high-density features. Finally, the clues are used to perform opinion piece recognition (a type of text categorization and genre detection) to demonstrate the utility of the knowledge acquired in this article.

734 citations

Book
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a survey of approaches to constructing a storyworld from context of Narration to Narrative as a type of text, with a focus on the role of stories in science.
Abstract: List of Illustrations. The Elements. Preface . The Scope and Aims of This Book. Storytelling Media and Modes of Narration. Acknowledgments . 1. Getting Started: A Thumbnail Sketch of the Approach Developed in This Book. Toward a Working Definition of Narrative. Profiles of Narrative. Narrative: Basic Elements. 2. Background and Context: Framing the Approach. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Narrative and Narrative Theory. Major Trends in Recent Scholarship on Narrative. 3. Back to the Elements: Narrative Occasions . Situating Stories. Sociolinguistic Approaches. Positioning Theory. The Narrative Communication Model. Conclusion. 4. Temporality, Particularity, and Narrative: An Excursion into the Theory of Text Types. From Contexts of Narration to Narrative as a Type of Text. Text Types and Categorization Processes. Narrative as a Text-Type Category: Descriptions vs. Stories vs. Explanations. Summing up: Text Types, Communicative Competence, and the Role of Stories in Science. 5. The Third Element: Or, How to Build a Storyworld . Narratives as Blueprints for Worldmaking. Narrative Ways of Worldmaking. Narrative Worlds: A Survey of Approaches. Configuring Narrative Worlds: The WHAT, WHERE, and WHEN Dimensions of Storyworlds. Worlds Disrupted: Narrativity and Noncanonical Events. 6. The Nexus of Narrative and Mind . The Consciousness Factor. Consciousness Across Narrative Genres. Experiencing Minds: What It's Like, Qualia, Raw Feels. Storied Minds: Narrative Foundations of Consciousness?. Appendix . Reproduction of Ernest Hemingway's "Hills Like White Elephants" (1927). Transcript of a Story Told during Face-to-Face Interaction: UFO or the Devil. Pages from Daniel's Clowes's Graphic Novel Ghost World (1997). Screenshots from Terry Zwigoff's Film Version of Ghost World (2001). Glossary . References. Index

511 citations

Book
06 Apr 2009
TL;DR: An Introduction to Narratology as mentioned in this paper is an accessible, practical guide to narratological theory and terminology and its application to literature, including a comprehensive overview of the key aspects of narratology by a leading practitioner in the field.
Abstract: An Introduction to Narratology is an accessible, practical guide to narratological theory and terminology and its application to literature. In this book, Monika Fludernik outlines: the key concepts of style, metaphor and metonymy, and the history of narrative forms narratological approaches to interpretation and the linguistic aspects of texts, including new cognitive developments in the field how students can use narratological theory to work with texts, incorporating detailed practical examples a glossary of useful narrative terms, and suggestions for further reading. This textbook offers a comprehensive overview of the key aspects of narratology by a leading practitioner in the field. It demystifies the subject in a way that is accessible to beginners, but also reflects recent theoretical developments and narratology’s increasing popularity as a critical tool.

395 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, the activation of mirror neurons in the brains of onlookers can be recorded as they witness another's actions and emotional reactions as mentioned in this paper, and the possibility that reading stimulates mirror neurons' activation can now, as never before, undergo neuroscientific investigation.
Abstract: We are living in a time when the activation of mirror neurons in the brains of onlookers can be recorded as they witness another’s actions and emotional reactions. 1 Contemporary neuroscience has brought us much closer to an understanding of the neural basis for human mind reading and emotion sharing abilities—the mechanisms underlying empathy. The activation of onlookers’ mirror neurons by a coach’s demonstration of technique or an internal visualization of proper form and by representations in television, film, visual art, and pornography has already been recorded. 2 Simply hearing a description of an absent other’s actions lights up mirror neuron areas during fMRI imaging of the human brain. 3 The possibility that novel reading stimulates mirror neurons’ activation can now, as never before, undergo neuroscientific investigation. Neuroscientists have already declared that people scoring high on empathy tests have especially busy mirror neuron systems in their brains. 4 Fiction writers are likely to be among these high empathy individuals. For the first time we might investigate whether human differences in mirror neuron activity can be altered by exposure to art, to teaching, to literature. This newly enabled capacity to study empathy at the cellular level encourages speculation about human empathy’s positive consequences. These speculations are not new, as any student of eighteenth-century moral sentimentalism will affirm, but they dovetail with efforts on the part of contemporary virtue ethicists, political philosophers, educators, theologians, librarians, and interested parties such as authors and publishers to connect the experience of empathy, including its literary

389 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1968-Language

1,838 citations

Book
01 Jan 1971

861 citations

Book
01 May 1982
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a method of analysis and some examples of levels of style, text style, and frequency in a novel, and discuss the relationship between text style and text content.
Abstract: Foreword Introduction Part I: Approaches and methods 1. Style and Choice 2. Style, Text and Frequency 3. A Method of Analysis and some Examples 4. Levels of Style Part II: Aspects of style 5. Language and the Fictional World 6. Mind Style 7. The Rhetoric of Text 8. Discourse and Discourse Situation 9. Conversation in the Novel 10. Speech and Thought Presentation Passages and topics for further study Further reading Bibliography Index of works discussed General index

565 citations

Book
01 Jan 1994

503 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the historical development of narrative style and the knowledge of the clock and the lens in the context of narrated and non-reflective consciousness and the absence of the narrator.
Abstract: Preface Introduction 1. The expression of subjectivity and the sentences of direct and indirect speech 2. The sentence of represented speech and thought 3. Communication and the sentence of discourse 4. The sentences of narration and discourse 5. The sentence representing non-reflective consciousness and the absence of the narrator 6. The historical development of narrative style Conclusion: Narration and representation: the knowledge of the clock and the lens Notes Bibliography Name index Subject index

424 citations