Bio: Amitava Ghosh is an academic researcher from Bell Labs. The author has contributed to research in topics: Telecommunications link & Cellular network. The author has an hindex of 41, co-authored 139 publications receiving 8075 citations. Previous affiliations of Amitava Ghosh include Alcatel-Lucent & Nokia Networks.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This paper proposes the use of outdoor millimeter wave communications for backhaul networking between cells and mobile access within a cell, and proposes an efficient beam alignment technique using adaptive subspace sampling and hierarchical beam codebooks.
Abstract: Recently, there has been considerable interest in new tiered network cellular architectures, which would likely use many more cell sites than found today. Two major challenges will be i) providing backhaul to all of these cells and ii) finding efficient techniques to leverage higher frequency bands for mobile access and backhaul. This paper proposes the use of outdoor millimeter wave communications for backhaul networking between cells and mobile access within a cell. To overcome the outdoor impairments found in millimeter wave propagation, this paper studies beamforming using large arrays. However, such systems will require narrow beams, increasing sensitivity to movement caused by pole sway and other environmental concerns. To overcome this, we propose an efficient beam alignment technique using adaptive subspace sampling and hierarchical beam codebooks. A wind sway analysis is presented to establish a notion of beam coherence time. This highlights a previously unexplored tradeoff between array size and wind-induced movement. Generally, it is not possible to use larger arrays without risking a corresponding performance loss from wind-induced beam misalignment. The performance of the proposed alignment technique is analyzed and compared with other search and alignment methods. The results show significant performance improvement with reduced search time.
TL;DR: New theoretical models for understanding the heterogeneous cellular networks of tomorrow are discussed, and the practical constraints and challenges that operators must tackle in order for these networks to reach their potential are discussed.
Abstract: The proliferation of internet-connected mobile devices will continue to drive growth in data traffic in an exponential fashion, forcing network operators to dramatically increase the capacity of their networks. To do this cost-effectively, a paradigm shift in cellular network infrastructure deployment is occurring away from traditional (expensive) high-power tower-mounted base stations and towards heterogeneous elements. Examples of heterogeneous elements include microcells, picocells, femtocells, and distributed antenna systems (remote radio heads), which are distinguished by their transmit powers/ coverage areas, physical size, backhaul, and propagation characteristics. This shift presents many opportunities for capacity improvement, and many new challenges to co-existence and network management. This article discusses new theoretical models for understanding the heterogeneous cellular networks of tomorrow, and the practical constraints and challenges that operators must tackle in order for these networks to reach their potential.
TL;DR: A general and tractable mmWave cellular model capturing these key trends and characterize the associated rate distribution is proposed and shows that, in sharp contrast to the interference-limited nature of UHF cellular networks, the spectral efficiency of mmWave networks also increases with the BS density, particularly at the cell edge.
Abstract: Millimeter wave (mmWave) cellular systems will require high-gain directional antennas and dense base station (BS) deployments to overcome a high near-field path loss and poor diffraction. As a desirable side effect, high-gain antennas offer interference isolation, providing an opportunity to incorporate self-backhauling , i.e., BSs backhauling among themselves in a mesh architecture without significant loss in the throughput, to enable the requisite large BS densities. The use of directional antennas and resource sharing between access and backhaul links leads to coverage and rate trends that significantly differ from conventional UHF cellular systems. In this paper, we propose a general and tractable mmWave cellular model capturing these key trends and characterize the associated rate distribution. The developed model and analysis are validated using actual building locations from dense urban settings and empirically derived path loss models. The analysis shows that, in sharp contrast to the interference-limited nature of UHF cellular networks, the spectral efficiency of mmWave networks (besides the total rate) also increases with the BS density, particularly at the cell edge. Increasing the system bandwidth does not significantly influence the cell edge rate, although it boosts the median and peak rates. With self-backhauling, different combinations of the wired backhaul fraction (i.e., the fraction of BSs with a wired connection) and the BS density are shown to guarantee the same median rate (QoS).
TL;DR: This study presents a roadmap from the current cellular technologies toward fully MTC-capable 5G mobile systems, and provides a clear mapping between the main MTC service requirements and their associated challenges.
Abstract: Machine-type communications (MTC) enables a broad range of applications from mission- critical services to massive deployment of autonomous devices. To spread these applications widely, cellular systems are considered as a potential candidate to provide connectivity for MTC devices. The ubiquitous deployment of these systems reduces network installation cost and provides mobility support. However, based on the service functions, there are key challenges that currently hinder the broad use of cellular systems for MTC. This article provides a clear mapping between the main MTC service requirements and their associated challenges. The goal is to develop a comprehensive understanding of these challenges and the potential solutions. This study presents, in part, a roadmap from the current cellular technologies toward fully MTC-capable 5G mobile systems.
TL;DR: A tractable hybrid network model where the positions of mobiles are modeled by random spatial Poisson point process is proposed and derived analytical rate expressions are applied to optimize the two D2D spectrum sharing scenarios under a weighted proportional fair utility function.
Abstract: This paper addresses two fundamental and interrelated issues in device-to-device (D2D) enhanced cellular networks. The first issue is how D2D users should access spectrum, and we consider two choices: overlay (orthogonal spectrum between D2D and cellular UEs) and underlay (non-orthogonal). The second issue is how D2D users should choose between communicating directly or via the base station, a choice that depends on distance between the potential D2D transmitter and receiver. We propose a tractable hybrid network model where the positions of mobiles are modeled by random spatial Poisson point process, with which we present a general analytical approach that allows a unified performance evaluation for these questions. Then, we derive analytical rate expressions and apply them to optimize the two D2D spectrum sharing scenarios under a weighted proportional fair utility function. We find that as the proportion of potential D2D mobiles increases, the optimal spectrum partition in the overlay is almost invariant (when D2D mode selection threshold is large) while the optimal spectrum access factor in the underlay decreases. Further, from a coverage perspective, we reveal a tradeoff between the spectrum access factor and the D2D mode selection threshold in the underlay: as more D2D links are allowed (due to a more relaxed mode selection threshold), the network should actually make less spectrum available to them to limit their interference.
TL;DR: This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, and in particular of the papers appearing in this special issue.
Abstract: What will 5G be? What it will not be is an incremental advance on 4G. The previous four generations of cellular technology have each been a major paradigm shift that has broken backward compatibility. Indeed, 5G will need to be a paradigm shift that includes very high carrier frequencies with massive bandwidths, extreme base station and device densities, and unprecedented numbers of antennas. However, unlike the previous four generations, it will also be highly integrative: tying any new 5G air interface and spectrum together with LTE and WiFi to provide universal high-rate coverage and a seamless user experience. To support this, the core network will also have to reach unprecedented levels of flexibility and intelligence, spectrum regulation will need to be rethought and improved, and energy and cost efficiencies will become even more critical considerations. This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, and in particular of the papers appearing in this special issue.
TL;DR: The motivation for new mm-wave cellular systems, methodology, and hardware for measurements are presented and a variety of measurement results are offered that show 28 and 38 GHz frequencies can be used when employing steerable directional antennas at base stations and mobile devices.
Abstract: The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers has motivated the exploration of the underutilized millimeter wave (mm-wave) frequency spectrum for future broadband cellular communication networks. There is, however, little knowledge about cellular mm-wave propagation in densely populated indoor and outdoor environments. Obtaining this information is vital for the design and operation of future fifth generation cellular networks that use the mm-wave spectrum. In this paper, we present the motivation for new mm-wave cellular systems, methodology, and hardware for measurements and offer a variety of measurement results that show 28 and 38 GHz frequencies can be used when employing steerable directional antennas at base stations and mobile devices.
TL;DR: This survey makes an exhaustive review of wireless evolution toward 5G networks, including the new architectural changes associated with the radio access network (RAN) design, including air interfaces, smart antennas, cloud and heterogeneous RAN, and underlying novel mm-wave physical layer technologies.
Abstract: The vision of next generation 5G wireless communications lies in providing very high data rates (typically of Gbps order), extremely low latency, manifold increase in base station capacity, and significant improvement in users’ perceived quality of service (QoS), compared to current 4G LTE networks. Ever increasing proliferation of smart devices, introduction of new emerging multimedia applications, together with an exponential rise in wireless data (multimedia) demand and usage is already creating a significant burden on existing cellular networks. 5G wireless systems, with improved data rates, capacity, latency, and QoS are expected to be the panacea of most of the current cellular networks’ problems. In this survey, we make an exhaustive review of wireless evolution toward 5G networks. We first discuss the new architectural changes associated with the radio access network (RAN) design, including air interfaces, smart antennas, cloud and heterogeneous RAN. Subsequently, we make an in-depth survey of underlying novel mm-wave physical layer technologies, encompassing new channel model estimation, directional antenna design, beamforming algorithms, and massive MIMO technologies. Next, the details of MAC layer protocols and multiplexing schemes needed to efficiently support this new physical layer are discussed. We also look into the killer applications, considered as the major driving force behind 5G. In order to understand the improved user experience, we provide highlights of new QoS, QoE, and SON features associated with the 5G evolution. For alleviating the increased network energy consumption and operating expenditure, we make a detail review on energy awareness and cost efficiency. As understanding the current status of 5G implementation is important for its eventual commercialization, we also discuss relevant field trials, drive tests, and simulation experiments. Finally, we point out major existing research issues and identify possible future research directions.
••05 Feb 2014
TL;DR: Measurements and capacity studies are surveyed to assess mmW technology with a focus on small cell deployments in urban environments and it is shown that mmW systems can offer more than an order of magnitude increase in capacity over current state-of-the-art 4G cellular networks at current cell densities.
Abstract: Millimeter-wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are a new frontier for cellular communication that offers the promise of orders of magnitude greater bandwidths combined with further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing from multielement antenna arrays. This paper surveys measurements and capacity studies to assess this technology with a focus on small cell deployments in urban environments. The conclusions are extremely encouraging; measurements in New York City at 28 and 73 GHz demonstrate that, even in an urban canyon environment, significant non-line-of-sight (NLOS) outdoor, street-level coverage is possible up to approximately 200 m from a potential low-power microcell or picocell base station. In addition, based on statistical channel models from these measurements, it is shown that mmW systems can offer more than an order of magnitude increase in capacity over current state-of-the-art 4G cellular networks at current cell densities. Cellular systems, however, will need to be significantly redesigned to fully achieve these gains. Specifically, the requirement of highly directional and adaptive transmissions, directional isolation between links, and significant possibilities of outage have strong implications on multiple access, channel structure, synchronization, and receiver design. To address these challenges, the paper discusses how various technologies including adaptive beamforming, multihop relaying, heterogeneous network architectures, and carrier aggregation can be leveraged in the mmW context.
TL;DR: An adaptive algorithm to estimate the mmWave channel parameters that exploits the poor scattering nature of the channel is developed and a new hybrid analog/digital precoding algorithm is proposed that overcomes the hardware constraints on the analog-only beamforming, and approaches the performance of digital solutions.
Abstract: Millimeter wave (mmWave) cellular systems will enable gigabit-per-second data rates thanks to the large bandwidth available at mmWave frequencies. To realize sufficient link margin, mmWave systems will employ directional beamforming with large antenna arrays at both the transmitter and receiver. Due to the high cost and power consumption of gigasample mixed-signal devices, mmWave precoding will likely be divided among the analog and digital domains. The large number of antennas and the presence of analog beamforming requires the development of mmWave-specific channel estimation and precoding algorithms. This paper develops an adaptive algorithm to estimate the mmWave channel parameters that exploits the poor scattering nature of the channel. To enable the efficient operation of this algorithm, a novel hierarchical multi-resolution codebook is designed to construct training beamforming vectors with different beamwidths. For single-path channels, an upper bound on the estimation error probability using the proposed algorithm is derived, and some insights into the efficient allocation of the training power among the adaptive stages of the algorithm are obtained. The adaptive channel estimation algorithm is then extended to the multi-path case relying on the sparse nature of the channel. Using the estimated channel, this paper proposes a new hybrid analog/digital precoding algorithm that overcomes the hardware constraints on the analog-only beamforming, and approaches the performance of digital solutions. Simulation results show that the proposed low-complexity channel estimation algorithm achieves comparable precoding gains compared to exhaustive channel training algorithms. The results illustrate that the proposed channel estimation and precoding algorithms can approach the coverage probability achieved by perfect channel knowledge even in the presence of interference.