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Ernesto Limiti

Bio: Ernesto Limiti is an academic researcher from University of Rome Tor Vergata. The author has contributed to research in topics: Amplifier & Antenna (radio). The author has an hindex of 33, co-authored 502 publications receiving 4644 citations. Previous affiliations of Ernesto Limiti include University of L'Aquila & Instituto Politécnico Nacional.


Papers
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24 Aug 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of power amplifiers and their application in the context of load-pulling and power-combiner networks, as well as their properties.
Abstract: Preface. About the Authors. Acknowledgments. 1 Power Amplifier Fundamentals. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Definition of Power Amplifier Parameters. 1.3 Distortion Parameters. 1.4 Power Match Condition. 1.5 Class of Operation. 1.6 Overview of Semiconductors for PAs. 1.7 Devices for PA. 1.8 Appendix: Demonstration of Useful Relationships. 1.9 References. 2 Power Amplifier Design. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Design Flow. 2.3 Simplified Approaches. 2.4 The Tuned Load Amplifier. 2.5 Sample Design of a Tuned Load PA. 2.6 References. 3 Nonlinear Analysis for Power Amplifiers. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Linear vs. Nonlinear Circuits. 3.3 Time Domain Integration. 3.4 Example. 3.5 Solution by Series Expansion. 3.6 The Volterra Series. 3.7 The Fourier Series. 3.8 The Harmonic Balance. 3.9 Envelope Analysis. 3.10 Spectral Balance. 3.11 Large Signal Stability Issue. 3.12 References. 4 Load Pull. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Passive Source/Load Pull Measurement Systems. 4.3 Active Source/Load Pull Measurement Systems. 4.4 Measurement Test-sets. 4.5 Advanced Load Pull Measurements. 4.6 Source/Load Pull Characterization. 4.7 Determination of Optimum Load Condition. 4.8 Appendix: Construction of Simplified Load Pull Contours through Linear Simulations. 4.9 References. 5 High Efficiency PA Design Theory. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Power Balance in a PA. 5.3 Ideal Approaches. 5.4 High Frequency Harmonic Tuning Approaches. 5.5 High Frequency Third Harmonic Tuned (Class F). 5.6 High Frequency Second Harmonic Tuned. 5.7 High Frequency Second and Third Harmonic Tuned. 5.8 Design by Harmonic Tuning. 5.9 Final Remarks. 5.10 References. 6 Switched Amplifiers. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 The Ideal Class E Amplifier. 6.3 Class E Behavioural Analysis. 6.4 Low Frequency Class E Amplifier Design. 6.5 Class E Amplifier Design with 50# Duty-cycle. 6.6 Examples of High Frequency Class E Amplifiers. 6.7 Class E vs. Harmonic Tuned. 6.8 Class E Final Remarks. 6.9 Appendix: Demonstration of Useful Relationships. 6.10 References. 7 High Frequency Class F Power Amplifiers. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Class F Description Based on Voltage Wave-shaping. 7.3 High Frequency Class F Amplifiers. 7.4 Bias Level Selection. 7.5 Class F Output Matching Network Design. 7.6 Class F Design Examples. 7.7 References. 8 High Frequency Harmonic Tuned Power Amplifiers. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Theory of Harmonic Tuned PA Design. 8.3 Input Device Nonlinear Phenomena: Theoretical Analysis. 8.4 Input Device Nonlinear Phenomena: Experimental Results. 8.5 Output Device Nonlinear Phenomena. 8.6 Design of a Second HT Power Amplifier. 8.7 Design of a Second and Third HT Power Amplifier. 8.8 Example of 2nd HT GaN PA. 8.9 Final Remarks. 8.10 References. 9 High Linearity in Efficient Power Amplifiers. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Systems Classification. 9.3 Linearity Issue. 9.4 Bias Point Influence on IMD. 9.5 Harmonic Loading Effects on IMD. 9.6 Appendix: Volterra Analysis Example. 9.7 References. 10 Power Combining. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Device Scaling Properties. 10.3 Power Budget. 10.4 Power Combiner Classification. 10.5 The T-junction Power Divider. 10.6 Wilkinson Combiner. 10.7 The Quadrature (90 ) Hybrid. 10.8 The 180 Hybrid (Ring Coupler or Rat-race). 10.9 Bus-bar Combiner. 10.10 Other Planar Combiners. 10.11 Corporate Combiners. 10.12 Resonating Planar Combiners. 10.13 Graceful Degradation. 10.14 Matching Properties of Combined PAs. 10.15 Unbalance Issue in Hybrid Combiners. 10.16 Appendix: Basic Properties of Three-port Networks. 10.17 References. 11 The Doherty Power Amplifier. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Doherty's Idea. 11.3 The Classical Doherty Configuration. 11.4 The 'AB-C' Doherty Amplifier Analysis. 11.5 Power Splitter Sizing. 11.6 Evaluation of the Gain in a Doherty Amplifier. 11.7 Design Example. 11.8 Advanced Solutions. 11.9 References. Index.

376 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the mutual-coupling reduction methods inspired by MTM and MTS concepts can provide a higher level of isolation between neighbouring radiating elements using easily realizable and cost-effective decoupling configurations that have negligible consequence on the array’s characteristics such as bandwidth, gain and radiation efficiency, and physical footprint.
Abstract: Nowadays synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems with the capability to radiate waves in more than one pattern and polarization are playing a key role in modern telecommunication and radar systems. This is possible with the use of antenna arrays as they offer advantages of high gain and beamforming capability, which can be utilized for controlling radiation pattern for electromagnetic (EM) interference immunity in wireless systems. However, with the growing demand for compact array antennas, the physical footprint of the arrays needs to be smaller and the consequent of this is severe degradation in the performance of the array resulting from strong mutual-coupling and crosstalk effects between adjacent radiating elements. This review presents a detailed systematic and theoretical study of various mutual-coupling suppression (decoupling) techniques with a strong focus on metamaterial (MTM) and metasurface (MTS) approaches. While the performance of systems employing antenna arrays can be enhanced by calibrating out the interferences digitally, however it is more efficient to apply decoupling techniques at the antenna itself. Previously various simple and cost-effective approaches have been demonstrated to effectively suppress unwanted mutual-coupling in arrays. Such techniques include the use of defected ground structure (DGS), parasitic or slot element, dielectric resonator antenna (DRA), complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR), decoupling networks, P.I.N or varactor diodes, electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures, etc. In this review, it is shown that the mutual-coupling reduction methods inspired By MTM and MTS concepts can provide a higher level of isolation between neighbouring radiating elements using easily realizable and cost-effective decoupling configurations that have negligible consequence on the array’s characteristics such as bandwidth, gain and radiation efficiency, and physical footprint.

226 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A wide overview of key early-stage concepts of metematerial-based designs as a thorough reference for specialist antennas and microwave circuits designers are provided.
Abstract: In this review paper, a comprehensive study on the concept, theory, and applications of composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) by considering their use in antenna system designs have been provided. It is shown that CRLH-TLs with negative permittivity (e <; 0) and negative permeability (μ <; 0) have unique properties that do not occur naturally. Therefore, they are referred to as artificial structures called “metamaterials”. These artificial structures include series left-handed (LH) capacitances (C L ), shunt LH inductances (L L ), series right-handed (RH) inductances (LR), and shunt RH capacitances (CR) that are realized by slots or interdigital capacitors, stubs or via-holes, unwanted current flowing on the surface, and gap distance between the surface and ground-plane, respectively. In the most cases, it is also shown that structures based on CRLH metamaterial-TLs are superior than their conventional alternatives, since they have smaller dimensions, lower-profile, wider bandwidth, better radiation patterns, higher gain and efficiency, which make them easier and more cost-effective to manufacture and mass produce. Hence, a broad range of metamaterial-based design possibilities are introduced to highlight the improvement of the performance parameters that are rare and not often discussed in available literature. Therefore, this survey provides a wide overview of key early-stage concepts of metematerial-based designs as a thorough reference for specialist antennas and microwave circuits designers. To analyze the critical features of metamaterial theory and concept, several examples are used. Comparisons on the basis of physical size, bandwidth, materials, gain, efficiency, and radiation patterns are made for all the examples that are based on CRLH metamaterialTLs. As revealed in all the metematerial design examples, foot-print area decrement is an important issue of study that have a strong impact for the enlargement of the next generation wireless communication systems.

188 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focused on the determination and analysis of an accurate small-signal equivalent circuit for gallium-nitride high electron-mobility transistors under different bias conditions.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the determination and analysis of an accurate small-signal equivalent circuit for gallium-nitride high electron-mobility transistors under different bias conditions. Our experimental results show that a channel capacitance has to be added to the conventional forward "cold" model for modeling the device-under-test. The validity of the proposed extraction procedure has been verified by the very good agreement between simulated and measured scattering parameters up to 50 GHz

158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed technique can be applied retrospectively and is applicable in closely placed patch antennas in arrays found in multiple-input multiple-output and radar systems.
Abstract: An approach is proposed to reduce mutual coupling between two closely spaced radiating elements. This is achieved by inserting a fractal isolator between the radiating elements. The fractal isolator is an electromagnetic bandgap structure based on metamaterial. With this technique, the gap between radiators is reduced to $\sim 0.65\lambda $ for the reduction in the mutual coupling of up to 37, 21, 20, and 31 dB in the ${X}$ -, Ku -, ${K}$ -, and Ka -bands, respectively. With the proposed technique, the two-element antenna is shown to operate over a wide frequency range, i.e., 8.7–11.7, 11.9–14.6, 15.6–17.1, 22–26, and 29–34.2 GHz. Maximum gain improvement is 71% with no deterioration in the radiation patterns. The antenna’s characteristics were validated through measurement. The proposed technique can be applied retrospectively and is applicable in closely placed patch antennas in arrays found in multiple-input multiple-output and radar systems.

139 citations


Cited by
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Georges Aad1, E. Abat2, Jalal Abdallah3, Jalal Abdallah4  +3029 moreInstitutions (164)
23 Feb 2020
TL;DR: The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper, where a brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.
Abstract: The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.

3,111 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The UWBG semiconductor materials, such as high Al‐content AlGaN, diamond and Ga2O3, advanced in maturity to the point where realizing some of their tantalizing advantages is a relatively near‐term possibility.
Abstract: J. Y. Tsao,* S. Chowdhury, M. A. Hollis,* D. Jena, N. M. Johnson, K. A. Jones, R. J. Kaplar,* S. Rajan, C. G. Van de Walle, E. Bellotti, C. L. Chua, R. Collazo, M. E. Coltrin, J. A. Cooper, K. R. Evans, S. Graham, T. A. Grotjohn, E. R. Heller, M. Higashiwaki, M. S. Islam, P. W. Juodawlkis, M. A. Khan, A. D. Koehler, J. H. Leach, U. K. Mishra, R. J. Nemanich, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, J. B. Shealy, Z. Sitar, M. J. Tadjer, A. F. Witulski, M. Wraback, and J. A. Simmons

785 citations

01 Jan 2016

733 citations

01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: The 2017 roadmap of terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz-30 THz) as mentioned in this paper provides a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provides an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds.
Abstract: Science and technologies based on terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz–30 THz) have developed rapidly over the last 30 years. For most of the 20th Century, terahertz radiation, then referred to as sub-millimeter wave or far-infrared radiation, was mainly utilized by astronomers and some spectroscopists. Following the development of laser based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 1980s and 1990s the field of THz science and technology expanded rapidly, to the extent that it now touches many areas from fundamental science to 'real world' applications. For example THz radiation is being used to optimize materials for new solar cells, and may also be a key technology for the next generation of airport security scanners. While the field was emerging it was possible to keep track of all new developments, however now the field has grown so much that it is increasingly difficult to follow the diverse range of new discoveries and applications that are appearing. At this point in time, when the field of THz science and technology is moving from an emerging to a more established and interdisciplinary field, it is apt to present a roadmap to help identify the breadth and future directions of the field. The aim of this roadmap is to present a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provide an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds. To be able to achieve this aim, we have invited a group of international experts to write 18 sections that cover most of the key areas of THz science and technology. We hope that The 2017 Roadmap on THz science and technology will prove to be a useful resource by providing a wide ranging introduction to the capabilities of THz radiation for those outside or just entering the field as well as providing perspective and breadth for those who are well established. We also feel that this review should serve as a useful guide for government and funding agencies.

690 citations