Other affiliations: Fundamental Research on Matter Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Utrecht University, University of Twente ...read more
Bio: Guido Mul is an academic researcher from MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Catalysis & Photocatalysis. The author has an hindex of 54, co-authored 239 publications receiving 11379 citations. Previous affiliations of Guido Mul include Fundamental Research on Matter Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics & Utrecht University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of recent developments and future perspectives in carbon dioxide usage for sustainable production of energy and chemicals and to reduce global warming is presented, focusing on the design of metal electrodes to improve their performance and recent developments of alternative approaches such as the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes and microorganisms as co-catalysts.
Abstract: This review highlights recent developments and future perspectives in carbon dioxide usage for the sustainable production of energy and chemicals and to reduce global warming. We discuss the heterogeneously catalysed hydrogenation, as well as the photocatalytic and electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons or oxygenates. Various sources of hydrogen are also reviewed in terms of their CO2 neutrality. Technologies have been developed for large-scale CO2 hydrogenation to methanol or methane. Their industrial application is, however, limited by the high price of renewable hydrogen and the availability of large-volume sources of pure CO2. With regard to the direct electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to value-added chemicals, substantial advances in electrodes, electrolyte, and reactor design are still required to permit the development of commercial processes. Therefore, in this review particular attention is paid to (i) the design of metal electrodes to improve their performance and (ii) recent developments of alternative approaches such as the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes and of microorganisms as co-catalysts. The most significant improvements both in catalyst and reactor design are needed for the photocatalytic functionalisation of CO2 to become a viable technology that can help in the usage of CO2 as a feedstock for the production of energy and chemicals. Apart from technological aspects and catalytic performance, we also discuss fundamental strategies for the rational design of materials for effective transformations of CO2 to value-added chemicals with the help of H2, electricity and/or light.
TL;DR: For a variety of metals and semiconductors, an attempt is made to generalize observations in the literature on the effect of process conditions applied during photodeposition on (i) particle size distributions, (ii) oxidation states of the metals obtained, and (iii) consequences for photocatalytic activities.
Abstract: In this review, for a variety of metals and semiconductors, an attempt is made to generalize observations in the literature on the effect of process conditions applied during photodeposition on (i) particle size distributions, (ii) oxidation states of the metals obtained, and (iii) consequences for photocatalytic activities. Process parameters include presence or absence of (organic) sacrificial agents, applied pH, presence or absence of an air/inert atmosphere, metal precursor type and concentration, and temperature. Most intensively reviewed are studies concerning (i) TiO2; (ii) ZnO, focusing on Ag deposition; (iii) WO3, with a strong emphasis on the photodeposition of Pt; and (iv) CdS, again with a focus on deposition of Pt. Furthermore, a detailed overview is given of achievements in structure-directed photodeposition, which could ultimately be employed to obtain highly effective photocatalytic materials. Finally, we provide suggestions for improvements in description of the photodeposition methods applied when included in scientific papers.
TL;DR: Online mass spectroscopy studies combined with X-ray diffraction data suggest the reduction of the Cu2O films in the presence of CO2, generating a nanoparticulate Cu morphology, prior to the production of hydrogen, CO, and hydrocarbons.
Abstract: The catalytic activity and hydrocarbon selectivity in electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) derived copper nanoparticles is discussed. Cuprous oxide films with ,  and  orientation and variable thickness were electrodeposited by reduction of copper(II) lactate on commercially available copper plates. After initiation of the electrochemical CO2 reduction by these oxide structures, the selectivity of the process was found to largely depend on the parent Cu2O film thickness, rather than on the initial crystal orientation. Starting with thin Cu2O films, besides CO and hydrogen, selective formation of ethylene is observed with very high ethylene-to-methane ratios (8 to 12). In addition to these products, thicker Cu2O films yield a remarkably large amount of ethane. Long term Faradaic efficiency analysis of hydrocarbons shows no sign of deactivation of the electrodes after 5 hours of continuous experiment. Online mass spectroscopy studies combined with X-ray diffraction data suggest the reduction of the Cu2O films in the presence of CO2, generating a nanoparticulate Cu morphology, prior to the production of hydrogen, CO, and hydrocarbons. Optimizing coverage, number density and size of the copper nanoparticles, as well as local surface pH, may allow highly selective formation of the industrially important product ethylene
TL;DR: A cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low overpotential, with an efficiency and selectivity comparable to the best porphyrIn-based electrocatalyst in the literature.
Abstract: The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low overpotential (0.5 V), with an efficiency and selectivity comparable to the best porphyrin-based electrocatalyst in the literature. While carbon monoxide is the main reduction product, we also observe methane as by-product. The results of our detailed pH-dependent studies are explained consistently by a mechanism in which carbon dioxide is activated by the cobalt protoporphyrin through the stabilization of a radical intermediate, which acts as Bronsted base. The basic character of this intermediate explains how the carbon dioxide reduction circumvents a concerted proton–electron transfer mechanism, in contrast to hydrogen evolution. Our results and their mechanistic interpretations suggest strategies for designing improved catalysts.
TL;DR: In this paper, an overview of recent advances in the design and application of novel reactors and devices is presented, focusing on the introduction of a multitude of micro- or even nanoscale light emitting sources close to the catalyst particles.
Abstract: Photocatalysis is an attractive technology with potential applications in various disciplines, such as chemical synthesis, environmental technology and medicine, and receives an impressive amount of exposure in the open literature. However, industrial implementation remains limited due to scale up problems and the design of photoreactors. In this paper an overview is presented of recent advances in the design and application of novel reactors and devices. Two issues are essential: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). In the field of mass transfer optimisation, spinning disc reactors, monolithic reactors and microreactors have been investigated for their use in photocatalysis. Significant advances are reported compared to conventional reactors. Studies focusing on performance improvement by optimising photon transfer, however, remain limited. While optical fibers and LEDs have been explored, major breakthroughs are still lacking. More focus on the introduction of a multitude of micro- or even nanoscale light emitting sources close to the catalyst particles is likely to be the way forward.
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analyses of the chiral stationary phase transition of Na6(CO3)(SO4)2, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3 of the Na2O/Na2O 2 mixture at the stationary phase and shows clear patterns in the response of these two materials to each other.
Abstract: Jenny Schneider,*,† Masaya Matsuoka,‡ Masato Takeuchi,‡ Jinlong Zhang, Yu Horiuchi,‡ Masakazu Anpo,‡ and Detlef W. Bahnemann*,† †Institut fur Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universitaẗ Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, D-30167 Hannover, Germany ‡Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai Osaka 599-8531, Japan Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
TL;DR: The unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials are introduced, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures, and the assortments of their synthetic methods are summarized.
Abstract: Since the discovery of mechanically exfoliated graphene in 2004, research on ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has grown exponentially in the fields of condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, and nanotechnology. Highlighting their compelling physical, chemical, electronic, and optical properties, as well as their various potential applications, in this Review, we summarize the state-of-art progress on the ultrathin 2D nanomaterials with a particular emphasis on their recent advances. First, we introduce the unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures. The assortments of their synthetic methods are then summarized, including insights on their advantages and limitations, alongside some recommendations on suitable characterization techniques. We also discuss in detail the utilization of these ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for wide ranges of potential applications among the electronics/optoelectronics, electrocat...
TL;DR: In conclusion, MOFs as Host Matrices or Nanometric Reaction Cavities should not be considered as a source of concern in the determination of MOFs’ properties in relation to other materials.
Abstract: 2.2. MOFs with Metal Active Sites 4614 2.2.1. Early Studies 4614 2.2.2. Hydrogenation Reactions 4618 2.2.3. Oxidation of Organic Substrates 4620 2.2.4. CO Oxidation to CO2 4626 2.2.5. Phototocatalysis by MOFs 4627 2.2.6. Carbonyl Cyanosilylation 4630 2.2.7. Hydrodesulfurization 4631 2.2.8. Other Reactions 4632 2.3. MOFs with Reactive Functional Groups 4634 2.4. MOFs as Host Matrices or Nanometric Reaction Cavities 4636
TL;DR: The "polymer chemistry" of g-C(3)N(4) is described, how band positions and bandgap can be varied by doping and copolymerization, and how the organic solid can be textured to make it an effective heterogenous catalyst.
Abstract: Polymeric graphitic carbon nitride materials (for simplicity: g-C(3)N(4)) have attracted much attention in recent years because of their similarity to graphene. They are composed of C, N, and some minor H content only. In contrast to graphenes, g-C(3)N(4) is a medium-bandgap semiconductor and in that role an effective photocatalyst and chemical catalyst for a broad variety of reactions. In this Review, we describe the "polymer chemistry" of this structure, how band positions and bandgap can be varied by doping and copolymerization, and how the organic solid can be textured to make it an effective heterogenous catalyst. g-C(3)N(4) and its modifications have a high thermal and chemical stability and can catalyze a number of "dream reactions", such as photochemical splitting of water, mild and selective oxidation reactions, and--as a coactive catalytic support--superactive hydrogenation reactions. As carbon nitride is metal-free as such, it also tolerates functional groups and is therefore suited for multipurpose applications in biomass conversion and sustainable chemistry.