Energy and Environmental Science
About: Energy and Environmental Science is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Catalysis & Electrolyte. It has an ISSN identifier of 1754-5692. Over the lifetime, 4422 publication(s) have been published receiving 686530 citation(s).
26 Aug 2011-Energy and Environmental Science
Abstract: Li-ion battery technology has become very important in recent years as these batteries show great promise as power sources that can lead us to the electric vehicle (EV) revolution. The development of new materials for Li-ion batteries is the focus of research in prominent groups in the field of materials science throughout the world. Li-ion batteries can be considered to be the most impressive success story of modern electrochemistry in the last two decades. They power most of today's portable devices, and seem to overcome the psychological barriers against the use of such high energy density devices on a larger scale for more demanding applications, such as EV. Since this field is advancing rapidly and attracting an increasing number of researchers, it is important to provide current and timely updates of this constantly changing technology. In this review, we describe the key aspects of Li-ion batteries: the basic science behind their operation, the most relevant components, anodes, cathodes, electrolyte solutions, as well as important future directions for R&D of advanced Li-ion batteries for demanding use, such as EV and load-leveling applications.
Topics: Battery (electricity) (50%)
08 Jun 2016-Energy and Environmental Science
Abstract: Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics.
17 Apr 2014-Energy and Environmental Science
Abstract: Electrochemical energy storage technology is based on devices capable of exhibiting high energy density (batteries) or high power density (electrochemical capacitors). There is a growing need, for current and near-future applications, where both high energy and high power densities are required in the same material. Pseudocapacitance, a faradaic process involving surface or near surface redox reactions, offers a means of achieving high energy density at high charge–discharge rates. Here, we focus on the pseudocapacitive properties of transition metal oxides. First, we introduce pseudocapacitance and describe its electrochemical features. Then, we review the most relevant pseudocapacitive materials in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes. The major challenges for pseudocapacitive materials along with a future outlook are detailed at the end.
01 Mar 2012-Energy and Environmental Science
Abstract: Energy production and storage have become key issues concerning our welfare in daily life. Present challenges for batteries are twofold. In the first place, the increasing demand for powering systems of portable electronic devices and zero-emission vehicles stimulates research towards high energy and high voltage systems. In the second place, low cost batteries are required in order to advance towards smart electric grids that integrate discontinuous energy flow from renewable sources, optimizing the performance of clean energy sources. Na-ion batteries can be the key for the second point, because of the huge availability of sodium, its low price and the similarity of both Li and Na insertion chemistries. In spite of the lower energy density and voltage of Na-ion based technologies, they can be focused on applications where the weight and footprint requirement is less drastic, such as electrical grid storage. Much work has to be done in the field of Na-ion in order to catch up with Li-ion technology. Cathodic and anodic materials must be optimized, and new electrolytes will be the key point for Na-ion success. This review will gather the up-to-date knowledge about Na-ion battery materials, with the aim of providing a wide view of the systems that have already been explored and a starting point for the new research on this battery technology.
Giles E. Eperon1, Samuel D. Stranks1, Christopher Menelaou1, Michael B. Johnston1 +2 more•Institutions (1)
20 Feb 2014-Energy and Environmental Science
Abstract: Perovskite-based solar cells have attracted significant recent interest, with power conversion efficiencies in excess of 15% already superceding a number of established thin-film solar cell technologies. Most work has focused on a methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites, with a bandgaps of ∼1.55 eV and greater. Here, we explore the effect of replacing the methylammonium cation in this perovskite, and show that with the slightly larger formamidinium cation, we can synthesise formamidinium lead trihalide perovskites with a bandgap tunable between 1.48 and 2.23 eV. We take the 1.48 eV-bandgap perovskite as most suited for single junction solar cells, and demonstrate long-range electron and hole diffusion lengths in this material, making it suitable for planar heterojunction solar cells. We fabricate such devices, and due to the reduced bandgap we achieve high short-circuit currents of >23 mA cm−2, resulting in power conversion efficiencies of up to 14.2%, the highest efficiency yet for solution processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Formamidinium lead triiodide is hence promising as a new candidate for this class of solar cell.