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Author

Maksim Kunitski

Other affiliations: Peking University
Bio: Maksim Kunitski is a academic researcher from Goethe University Frankfurt. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Ionization & Electron. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 85 publication(s) receiving 6057 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Maksim Kunitski include Peking University.

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Topics: Ionization, Electron, Ion ...read more
Papers
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-018-07882-8
Maksim Kunitski1, Nicolas Eicke2, Pia Huber1, Jonas Köhler1  +12 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.

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Topics: Ionization (55%), Neon (54%)

4,138 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1240362
M. Pitzer1, Maksim Kunitski1, Allan S. Johnson2, Allan S. Johnson1  +13 moreInstitutions (4)
06 Sep 2013-Science
Abstract: Bijvoet's method, which makes use of anomalous x-ray diffraction or dispersion, is the standard means of directly determining the absolute (stereochemical) configuration of molecules, but it requires crystalline samples and often proves challenging in structures exclusively comprising light atoms. Herein, we demonstrate a mass spectrometry approach that directly images the absolute configuration of individual molecules in the gas phase by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy after laser ionization-induced Coulomb explosion. This technique is applied to the prototypical chiral molecule bromochlorofluoromethane and the isotopically chiral methane derivative bromodichloromethane.

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183 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAA5601
Maksim Kunitski1, S. Zeller1, J. Voigtsberger1, Anton Kalinin1  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
01 May 2015-Science
Abstract: Quantum theory dictates that upon weakening the two-body interaction in a three-body system, an infinite number of three-body bound states of a huge spatial extent emerge just before these three-body states become unbound. Three helium (He) atoms have been predicted to form a molecular system that manifests this peculiarity under natural conditions without artificial tuning of the attraction between particles by an external field. Here we report experimental observation of this long-predicted but experimentally elusive Efimov state of 4 He 3 by means of Coulomb explosion imaging. We show spatial images of an Efimov state, confirming the predicted size and a typical structure where two atoms are close to each other while the third is far away.

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Topics: Efimov state (73%), Bound state (51%)

156 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAA5601
Maksim Kunitski1, S. Zeller1, J. Voigtsberger1, Anton Kalinin1  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Quantum theory dictates that upon weakening the two-body interaction in a three-body system, an infinite number of three-body bound states of a huge spatial extent emerge just before these three-body states become unbound. Three helium atoms have been predicted to form a molecular system that manifests this peculiarity under natural conditions without artificial tuning of the attraction between particles by an external field. Here we report experimental observation of this long predicted but experimentally elusive Efimov state of $^{4}$He$_{3}$ by means of Coulomb explosion imaging. We show spatial images of an Efimov state, confirming the predicted size and a typical structure where two atoms are close to each other while the third is far away.

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Topics: Efimov state (72%), Bound state (51%)

97 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.108.183001
Jian Wu1, Jian Wu2, L. Ph. H. Schmidt2, Maksim Kunitski2  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: We coincidently measure the molecular-frame photoelectron angular distribution and the ion sum-momentum distribution of single and double ionization of CO molecules by using circularly and elliptically polarized femtosecond laser pulses, respectively. The orientation dependent ionization rates for various kinetic energy releases allow us to individually identify the ionizations of multiple orbitals, ranging from the highest occupied to the next two lower-lying molecular orbitals for various channels observed in our experiments. Not only the emission of a single electron, but also the sequential tunneling dynamics of two electrons from multiple orbitals are traced step by step. Our results confirm that the shape of the ionizing orbitals determine the strong laser field tunneling ionization in the CO molecule, whereas the linear Stark effect plays a minor role.

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Topics: Double ionization (65%), Ionization (64%), Molecular orbital (64%) ...read more

85 Citations


Cited by
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-018-07882-8
Maksim Kunitski1, Nicolas Eicke2, Pia Huber1, Jonas Köhler1  +12 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.

...read more

Topics: Ionization (55%), Neon (54%)

4,138 Citations


Open access
01 Aug 2013-
Abstract: 본 연구는 현존하는 여덟 개의 〈뿔피리를 부는 제빵사〉 작품이 산발적으로 우연히 등장한 것이 아닌 서로 유기적인 영향관계를 주고 받으며 생산된 하나의 도상으로 살펴보았다. “뿔피리를 부는 제빵사” 그림에 대한 현재까지의 연구는 대부분 그림에 나타나 있는 다양한 빵들을 성만찬을 의미하는 종교적 상징으로 해석하고 있다. 이에 반해 본 연구는 “뿔피리를 부는 제빵사” 도상이 유독 17세기 중후반 네덜란드에서 생산된 사실에 주목하고, 그 이유를 동시대 네덜란드인들의 일상에 직접적인 영향을 주었던 빵의 생산 및 공급 그리고 유통과정에서 찾고자 한다. 여기에는 빵이 당대 네덜란드인들의 식생활 뿐 아니라 그들의 경제생활 더나아가 국가경제 전체에 어떤 중요한 역할을 했는지에 대한 연구가 선행되어야 한다. 주로 풍속화의 전통으로 해석되었던 “뿔피리를 부는 제빵사” 그림은 본 연구에서 풍속화와 초상화 두 장르가 혼합한 도상으로 다루어졌으며, 이제까지의 연구에서 미흡했던 초상화로서의 가능성이 적극적으로 제기되었다. 제빵사의 초상화 또는 화가의 자화상으로 생산된 〈뿔피리를 부는 제빵사〉의 시대적 배경에는 제빵사의 경제적 여유와 사회적 지위상승 그리고 제빵사를 영혼의 양식을 공급하는 고귀한 직업으로 승화시킨 칼비니즘의 영향이 있다. 제빵사들이 부를 축적할 수 있었던 배경에는 국가가 나서서 빵의 생산과 공급을 철저하게 관리해준 덕분이었다. 17세기 네덜란드의 제빵사들은 길드에 속해야만 빵을 팔 수 있었고 각 제빵사들의 빵 만드는 법은 외부인들에게 절대로 공개되지 않았다. 동시에 당시 네덜란드인들은 세금을 내지 않고는 빵을 먹기가 힘들었다. 이런 이유로 개인의 집에 오븐을 설치하는 것은 금지되었고, 빵은 꼭 관헌들에게 세금을 내는 합법적인 제빵사에게서만 살 수 있었다. 이렇게 17세기 네덜란드는 직업으로서 빵 굽는 사람을 보호하는 동시에 단속하기 위해 매우 엄격한 규정을 제정하였다. 17세기 네덜란드인들에게 빵은 그들의 식생활 뿐 아니라 그들의 다양한 직업과도 관련이 있었으며 빵의 생산과 유통과정에 개입한 국가의 권위와 통제를 상징하기도 한다. 빵의 생산과 유통에 붙는 세금은 국가의 경제를 지탱하고 발전시키는데 중요한 재원이었으며, 동시에 국민들을 엄격하게 관리함으로써 국가의 질서를 세우기 위한 효과적인 방편이었다. 빵가격은 변동이 심한 곡물가격과 빵의 크기에 따라서 엄격하게 결정되었다. 네덜란드정부는 평상시에 빵의 공식적인 무게와 가격을 고정시켰는데, 이는 다른 음식에서는 찾아볼 수 없는 유일한 관리방식이었다. 따라서 동시대 네덜란드인들에게 빵은 국가의 적극적인 개입과 관리체계를 통해서만 그들의 입에 넣을 수 있는 음식이었다. 이러한 맥락에서 볼 때, 본 연구에서 다룬 〈뿔피리를 부는 제빵사〉 그림에서 풍성하게 차려진 다양한 빵은 경제적인 풍요와 정치적인 안정을 의미한다. 여러 가지 다양한 음식 중에서도 빵이 이러한 의미를 가장 효과적으로 전달한다는 점에서 〈뿔피리를 부는 제빵사〉 그림에서 빵은 당시 네덜란드의 물질적 풍요뿐만 아니라 국가의 번영과 안녕을 의미한다고 볼 수 있다.

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521 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41573-020-0090-8
Abstract: In recent years, the development of nanoparticles has expanded into a broad range of clinical applications. Nanoparticles have been developed to overcome the limitations of free therapeutics and navigate biological barriers - systemic, microenvironmental and cellular - that are heterogeneous across patient populations and diseases. Overcoming this patient heterogeneity has also been accomplished through precision therapeutics, in which personalized interventions have enhanced therapeutic efficacy. However, nanoparticle development continues to focus on optimizing delivery platforms with a one-size-fits-all solution. As lipid-based, polymeric and inorganic nanoparticles are engineered in increasingly specified ways, they can begin to be optimized for drug delivery in a more personalized manner, entering the era of precision medicine. In this Review, we discuss advanced nanoparticle designs utilized in both non-personalized and precision applications that could be applied to improve precision therapies. We focus on advances in nanoparticle design that overcome heterogeneous barriers to delivery, arguing that intelligent nanoparticle design can improve efficacy in general delivery applications while enabling tailored designs for precision applications, thereby ultimately improving patient outcome overall.

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Topics: Precision medicine (52%)

338 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.CHEMREV.7B00617
20 Mar 2018-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Intersystem crossing (ISC), formally forbidden within nonrelativistic quantum theory, is the mechanism by which a molecule changes its spin state. It plays an important role in the excited state decay dynamics of many molecular systems and not just those containing heavy elements. In the simplest case, ISC is driven by direct spin–orbit coupling between two states of different multiplicities. This coupling is usually assumed to remain unchanged by vibrational motion. It is also often presumed that spin-allowed radiationless transitions, i.e. internal conversion, and the nonadiabatic coupling that drives them, can be considered separately from ISC and spin–orbit coupling owing to the vastly different time scales upon which these processes are assumed to occur. However, these assumptions are too restrictive. Indeed, the strong mixing brought about by the simultaneous presence of nonadiabatic and spin–orbit coupling means that often the spin, electronic, and vibrational dynamics cannot be described independe...

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310 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41573-020-0075-7
Thomas C. Roberts1, Robert Langer2, Wood Mja.1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Oligonucleotides can be used to modulate gene expression via a range of processes including RNAi, target degradation by RNase H-mediated cleavage, splicing modulation, non-coding RNA inhibition, gene activation and programmed gene editing. As such, these molecules have potential therapeutic applications for myriad indications, with several oligonucleotide drugs recently gaining approval. However, despite recent technological advances, achieving efficient oligonucleotide delivery, particularly to extrahepatic tissues, remains a major translational limitation. Here, we provide an overview of oligonucleotide-based drug platforms, focusing on key approaches - including chemical modification, bioconjugation and the use of nanocarriers - which aim to address the delivery challenge.

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Topics: Oligonucleotide (52%), Drug delivery (51%), Nanocarriers (51%)

265 Citations


Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 25

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20217
20209
20196
201814
20175
20168

Top Attributes

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

Physical Review Letters

16 papers, 475 citations

Physical Review A

12 papers, 130 citations

arXiv: Atomic Physics

8 papers, 61 citations

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

5 papers, 58 citations

Nature Communications

5 papers, 4.3K citations

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