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Michael Wong

Bio: Michael Wong is an academic researcher from University of Alberta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cellular differentiation & Randomized controlled trial. The author has an hindex of 27, co-authored 52 publications receiving 6992 citations. Previous affiliations of Michael Wong include Wilford Hall Medical Center & Genentech.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The system consists of a novel device for online palmprint image acquisition and an efficient algorithm for fast palmprint recognition, and a robust image coordinate system is defined to facilitate image alignment for feature extraction.
Abstract: Biometrics-based personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. This paper presents a new biometric approach to online personal identification using palmprint technology. In contrast to the existing methods, our online palmprint identification system employs low-resolution palmprint images to achieve effective personal identification. The system consists of two parts: a novel device for online palmprint image acquisition and an efficient algorithm for fast palmprint recognition. A robust image coordinate system is defined to facilitate image alignment for feature extraction. In addition, a 2D Gabor phase encoding scheme is proposed for palmprint feature extraction and representation. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

1,416 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Sep 2013-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that macrophages loaded with synthetic lipid A, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or S. typhimurium LPS activate caspase-11 independently of the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), revealing a TLR4-independent mechanism for innate immune recognition of LPS.
Abstract: Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri are sensed in an ill-defined manner by an intracellular inflammasome complex that activates caspase-11. We show that macrophages loaded with synthetic lipid A, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or S. typhimurium LPS activate caspase-11 independently of the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consistent with lipid A triggering the noncanonical inflammasome, LPS containing a divergent lipid A structure antagonized caspase-11 activation in response to E. coli LPS or Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, LPS-mutant E. coli failed to activate caspase-11. Tlr4(-/-) mice primed with TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] to induce pro-caspase-11 expression were as susceptible as wild-type mice were to sepsis induced by E. coli LPS. These data unveil a TLR4-independent mechanism for innate immune recognition of LPS.

1,177 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Li et al. as discussed by the authors presented a new biometric approach to online personal identification using palmprint technology, which consists of two parts: a novel device for online palmprint image acquisition and an efficient algorithm for fast palmprint recognition.
Abstract: —Biometrics-based personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. This paper presents a new biometric approach to online personal identification using palmprint technology. In contrast to the existing methods, our online palmprint identification system employs low-resolution palmprint images to achieve effective personal identification. The system consists of two parts: a novel device for online palmprint image acquisition and an efficient algorithm for fast palmprint recognition. A robust image coordinate system is defined to facilitate image alignment for feature extraction. In addition, a 2D Gabor phase encoding scheme is proposed for palmprint feature extraction and representation. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

908 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper identifies diverse cell types, including multiple progenitor and neuronal subtypes, and identifies EGR1 and FOS as previously unreported candidate targets of Notch signaling in human but not mouse radial glia by microfluidic single-cell capture and low-coverage sequencing of many cells.
Abstract: Large-scale surveys of single-cell gene expression have the potential to reveal rare cell populations and lineage relationships but require efficient methods for cell capture and mRNA sequencing. Although cellular barcoding strategies allow parallel sequencing of single cells at ultra-low depths, the limitations of shallow sequencing have not been investigated directly. By capturing 301 single cells from 11 populations using microfluidics and analyzing single-cell transcriptomes across downsampled sequencing depths, we demonstrate that shallow single-cell mRNA sequencing (~50,000 reads per cell) is sufficient for unbiased cell-type classification and biomarker identification. In the developing cortex, we identify diverse cell types, including multiple progenitor and neuronal subtypes, and we identify EGR1 and FOS as previously unreported candidate targets of Notch signaling in human but not mouse radial glia. Our strategy establishes an efficient method for unbiased analysis and comparison of cell populations from heterogeneous tissue by microfluidic single-cell capture and low-coverage sequencing of many cells.

858 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: 17 beta-estradiol potentiated the responses to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid, kainate, and quisqualate, but not NMDA, further implicating non-NMDA receptors in the short-term action of estrogen, and had no effect on responses to exogenous GABA or on the Schaffer collateral- induced late IPSP.
Abstract: The ovarian steroids exert both long-term and short-term actions on neurons involving different cellular mechanisms. We have investigated the long-term and short-term effects of estrogen on the electrophysiological properties of CA1 neurons utilizing intracellular recordings in hippocampal slices prepared from ovariectomized female rats. An in vivo estrogen-priming paradigm was used to examine long- term genomic actions of estrogen. Subcutaneous estrogen injections 2 d prior to recording had no effect on the intrinsic membrane properties of CA1 neurons, but increased synaptic excitability by prolonging the EPSP and inducing repetitive firing in response to Schaffer collateral stimulation. Short-term effects of estrogen that presumedly involve direct membrane interactions were tested by application of steroids directly to the slice. Superfusion of 17 beta-estradiol, but not 17 alpha-estradiol, caused a rapid and reversible increase in the amplitude of the Schaffer collateral-activated EPSP. This potentiation of the EPSP by 17 beta-estradiol still occurred in the presence of the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, but was blocked by the non- NMDA antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. Depolarizing responses to iontophoretic pulses of exogenous glutamate were also potentiated by 17 beta-estradiol, suggesting a post-synaptic site of action. In addition, 17 beta-estradiol potentiated the responses to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid, kainate, and quisqualate, but not NMDA, further implicating non-NMDA receptors in the short-term action of estrogen. In contrast, 17 beta-estradiol had no effect on responses to exogenous GABA or on the Schaffer collateral- induced late IPSP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

443 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A droplet-based system that enables 3′ mRNA counting of tens of thousands of single cells per sample is described and sequence variation in the transcriptome data is used to determine host and donor chimerism at single-cell resolution from bone marrow mononuclear cells isolated from transplant patients.
Abstract: Characterizing the transcriptome of individual cells is fundamental to understanding complex biological systems. We describe a droplet-based system that enables 3′ mRNA counting of tens of thousands of single cells per sample. Cell encapsulation, of up to 8 samples at a time, takes place in ∼6 min, with ∼50% cell capture efficiency. To demonstrate the system’s technical performance, we collected transcriptome data from ∼250k single cells across 29 samples. We validated the sensitivity of the system and its ability to detect rare populations using cell lines and synthetic RNAs. We profiled 68k peripheral blood mononuclear cells to demonstrate the system’s ability to characterize large immune populations. Finally, we used sequence variation in the transcriptome data to determine host and donor chimerism at single-cell resolution from bone marrow mononuclear cells isolated from transplant patients. Single-cell gene expression analysis is challenging. This work describes a new droplet-based single cell RNA-seq platform capable of processing tens of thousands of cells across 8 independent samples in minutes, and demonstrates cellular subtypes and host–donor chimerism in transplant patients.

4,219 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How cytokines and pathogen signals influence macrophages' functional phenotypes and the evidence for M1 and M2 functions is assessed and a paradigm initially based on the role of a restricted set of selected ligands in the immune response is revisited.
Abstract: Macrophages are endowed with a variety of receptors for lineage-determining growth factors, T helper (Th) cell cytokines, and B cell, host, and microbial products. In tissues, macrophages mature and are activated in a dynamic response to combinations of these stimuli to acquire specialized functional phenotypes. As for the lymphocyte system, a dichotomy has been proposed for macrophage activation: classic vs. alternative, also M1 and M2, respectively. In view of recent research about macrophage functions and the increasing number of immune-relevant ligands, a revision of the model is needed. Here, we assess how cytokines and pathogen signals influence their functional phenotypes and the evidence for M1 and M2 functions and revisit a paradigm initially based on the role of a restricted set of selected ligands in the immune response.

3,674 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Oct 2015-Nature
TL;DR: Gasdermin D (Gsdmd) is identified by genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat-Cas9 nuclease screens of caspase-11- and caspasing-1-mediated pyroptosis in mouse bone marrow macrophages to offer insight into inflammasome-mediated immunity/diseases and change the understanding of pyroPTosis and programmed necrosis.
Abstract: Inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, -4, -5 and -11) are critical for innate defences. Caspase-1 is activated by ligands of various canonical inflammasomes, and caspase-4, -5 and -11 directly recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide, both of which trigger pyroptosis. Despite the crucial role in immunity and endotoxic shock, the mechanism for pyroptosis induction by inflammatory caspases is unknown. Here we identify gasdermin D (Gsdmd) by genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease screens of caspase-11- and caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis in mouse bone marrow macrophages. GSDMD-deficient cells resisted the induction of pyroptosis by cytosolic lipopolysaccharide and known canonical inflammasome ligands. Interleukin-1β release was also diminished in Gsdmd(-/-) cells, despite intact processing by caspase-1. Caspase-1 and caspase-4/5/11 specifically cleaved the linker between the amino-terminal gasdermin-N and carboxy-terminal gasdermin-C domains in GSDMD, which was required and sufficient for pyroptosis. The cleavage released the intramolecular inhibition on the gasdermin-N domain that showed intrinsic pyroptosis-inducing activity. Other gasdermin family members were not cleaved by inflammatory caspases but shared the autoinhibition; gain-of-function mutations in Gsdma3 that cause alopecia and skin defects disrupted the autoinhibition, allowing its gasdermin-N domain to trigger pyroptosis. These findings offer insight into inflammasome-mediated immunity/diseases and also change our understanding of pyroptosis and programmed necrosis.

3,554 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Seurat is a computational strategy to infer cellular localization by integrating single-cell RNA-seq data with in situ RNA patterns, and correctly localizes rare subpopulations, accurately mapping both spatially restricted and scattered groups.
Abstract: Spatial localization is a key determinant of cellular fate and behavior, but methods for spatially resolved, transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling across complex tissues are lacking. RNA staining methods assay only a small number of transcripts, whereas single-cell RNA-seq, which measures global gene expression, separates cells from their native spatial context. Here we present Seurat, a computational strategy to infer cellular localization by integrating single-cell RNA-seq data with in situ RNA patterns. We applied Seurat to spatially map 851 single cells from dissociated zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and generated a transcriptome-wide map of spatial patterning. We confirmed Seurat's accuracy using several experimental approaches, then used the strategy to identify a set of archetypal expression patterns and spatial markers. Seurat correctly localizes rare subpopulations, accurately mapping both spatially restricted and scattered groups. Seurat will be applicable to mapping cellular localization within complex patterned tissues in diverse systems.

3,465 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Lorenzo Galluzzi1, Lorenzo Galluzzi2, Ilio Vitale3, Stuart A. Aaronson4  +183 moreInstitutions (111)
TL;DR: The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives.
Abstract: Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.

3,301 citations