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Robert C. Fleischer

Other affiliations: American University, Durham University, Smithsonian Institution  ...read more
Bio: Robert C. Fleischer is an academic researcher from Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Brood parasite. The author has an hindex of 63, co-authored 275 publications receiving 13478 citations. Previous affiliations of Robert C. Fleischer include American University & Durham University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A blunt-end linker, named SNX for its restriction sites, that allows the use of combinations of restriction enzymes to digest the majority of genomic DNA into the 200-1000-bp range, resulting in representative small-insert libraries with a very high proportion of positive clones.
Abstract: Microsatellite loci are highly informative genetic markers useful for population genetic studies, linkage mapping and parentage determination. Methods to identify novel microsatellite loci commonly use subtractive hybridization to enrich small-insert genomic libraries for repeat sequences. A critical step in enrichment is attachment of an oligonucleotide linker to genomic DNA fragments so that repeat-containing sequences can be recovered by PCR for cloning. Current linkers and ligation methods rely on single restriction enzymes to size-fraction genomic DNA and generate complementary ends. These restriction enzyme/linker combinations are often species-specific, give poor recovery of repeat-enriched DNA and yield library inserts that are not a broad sample of the genome. We have developed a blunt-end linker, named SNX for its restriction sites, that allows the use of combinations of restriction enzymes to digest the majority of genomic DNA into the 200-1000-bp range. SNX is attached to genomic DNA with a simultaneous ligation/restriction reaction that is highly efficient and improves recovery of sequences after subtractive hybridization. SNX can be used for microsatellite enrichment in any species, since ligation is independent of the restriction enzymes used to size-fraction genomic DNA. These methods improve current repeat-enrichment strategies, resulting in representative small-insert libraries with a very high proportion of positive clones.

812 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: H5N1 is more likely to be introduced into the Western Hemisphere through infected poultry and into the mainland United States by subsequent movement of migrating birds from neighboring countries, rather than from eastern Siberia.
Abstract: The spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza into Asia, Europe, and Africa has resulted in enormous impacts on the poultry industry and presents an important threat to human health. The pathways by which the virus has and will spread between countries have been debated extensively, but have yet to be analyzed comprehensively and quantitatively. We integrated data on phylogenetic relationships of virus isolates, migratory bird movements, and trade in poultry and wild birds to determine the pathway for 52 individual introduction events into countries and predict future spread. We show that 9 of 21 of H5N1 introductions to countries in Asia were most likely through poultry, and 3 of 21 were most likely through migrating birds. In contrast, spread to most (20/23) countries in Europe was most likely through migratory birds. Spread in Africa was likely partly by poultry (2/8 introductions) and partly by migrating birds (3/8). Our analyses predict that H5N1 is more likely to be introduced into the Western Hemisphere through infected poultry and into the mainland United States by subsequent movement of migrating birds from neighboring countries, rather than from eastern Siberia. These results highlight the potential synergism between trade and wild animal movement in the emergence and pandemic spread of pathogens and demonstrate the value of predictive models for disease control.

525 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: K–Ar estimates of the date of an island’s formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island and can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K–Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation;
Abstract: The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a ‘hot spot’ in the earth’s mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K‐Ar estimates of the date of an island’s formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K‐Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNA val in Laupala crickets (0.024‐0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i‐vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods.

460 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Mar 2004-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that, in northern Europe, forms differing in behavior and physiology have unique microsatellite fingerprints with no evidence of gene flow between them, as would be expected from distinct species.
Abstract: In the Old World, some mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are excellent enzootic vectors of West Nile virus, circulating the virus among birds, whereas others bite mainly humans and other mammals. Here we show that, in northern Europe, such forms differing in behavior and physiology have unique microsatellite fingerprints with no evidence of gene flow between them, as would be expected from distinct species. In the United States, however, hybrids between these forms are ubiquitous. Such hybrids between human-biters and bird-biters may be the bridge vectors contributing to the unprecedented severity and range of the West Nile virus epidemic in North America.

457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes is analyzed that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny and shows that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches and probably came to Hawaii from Asia.

425 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this discussion is to offer some unity to various estimation formulae and to point out that correlations of genes in structured populations, with which F-statistics are concerned, are expressed very conveniently with a set of parameters treated by Cockerham (1 969, 1973).
Abstract: This journal frequently contains papers that report values of F-statistics estimated from genetic data collected from several populations. These parameters, FST, FIT, and FIS, were introduced by Wright (1951), and offer a convenient means of summarizing population structure. While there is some disagreement about the interpretation of the quantities, there is considerably more disagreement on the method of evaluating them. Different authors make different assumptions about sample sizes or numbers of populations and handle the difficulties of multiple alleles and unequal sample sizes in different ways. Wright himself, for example, did not consider the effects of finite sample size. The purpose of this discussion is to offer some unity to various estimation formulae and to point out that correlations of genes in structured populations, with which F-statistics are concerned, are expressed very conveniently with a set of parameters treated by Cockerham (1 969, 1973). We start with the parameters and construct appropriate estimators for them, rather than beginning the discussion with various data functions. The extension of Cockerham's work to multiple alleles and loci will be made explicit, and the use of jackknife procedures for estimating variances will be advocated. All of this may be regarded as an extension of a recent treatment of estimating the coancestry coefficient to serve as a mea-

17,890 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

Journal Article
Fumio Tajima1
30 Oct 1989-Genomics
TL;DR: It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.

11,521 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: For the next few weeks the course is going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach it’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery.
Abstract: So far in this course we have dealt entirely with the evolution of characters that are controlled by simple Mendelian inheritance at a single locus. There are notes on the course website about gametic disequilibrium and how allele frequencies change at two loci simultaneously, but we didn’t discuss them. In every example we’ve considered we’ve imagined that we could understand something about evolution by examining the evolution of a single gene. That’s the domain of classical population genetics. For the next few weeks we’re going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach we’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery. If you know a little about the history of evolutionary biology, you may know that after the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900 there was a heated debate between the “biometricians” (e.g., Galton and Pearson) and the “Mendelians” (e.g., de Vries, Correns, Bateson, and Morgan). Biometricians asserted that the really important variation in evolution didn’t follow Mendelian rules. Height, weight, skin color, and similar traits seemed to

9,847 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2010

5,842 citations