Author

# Stanley Osher

Other affiliations: University of Minnesota, University of Innsbruck, Emory University ...read more

Bio: Stanley Osher is an academic researcher from University of California, Los Angeles. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Level set method & Hyperbolic partial differential equation. The author has an hindex of 114, co-authored 510 publication(s) receiving 104028 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Stanley Osher include University of Minnesota & University of Innsbruck.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, a constrained optimization type of numerical algorithm for removing noise from images is presented, where the total variation of the image is minimized subject to constraints involving the statistics of the noise.

Abstract: A constrained optimization type of numerical algorithm for removing noise from images is presented. The total variation of the image is minimized subject to constraints involving the statistics of the noise. The constraints are imposed using Lagrange multipliers. The solution is obtained using the gradient-projection method. This amounts to solving a time dependent partial differential equation on a manifold determined by the constraints. As t---~ 0o the solution converges to a steady state which is the denoised image. The numerical algorithm is simple and relatively fast. The results appear to be state-of-the-art for very noisy images. The method is noninvasive, yielding sharp edges in the image. The technique could be interpreted as a first step of moving each level set of the image normal to itself with velocity equal to the curvature of the level set divided by the magnitude of the gradient of the image, and a second step which projects the image back onto the constraint set.

13,575 citations

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TL;DR: The PSC algorithm as mentioned in this paper approximates the Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws, which can be used also for more general surface motion problems.

Abstract: New numerical algorithms are devised (PSC algorithms) for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Non-oscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be used also for more general Hamilton-Jacobi-type problems. The algorithms are demonstrated by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems.

12,372 citations

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31 Oct 2002TL;DR: A student or researcher working in mathematics, computer graphics, science, or engineering interested in any dynamic moving front, which might change its topology or develop singularities, will find this book interesting and useful.

Abstract: This book is an introduction to level set methods and dynamic implicit surfaces. These are powerful techniques for analyzing and computing moving fronts in a variety of different settings. While it gives many examples of the utility of the methods to a diverse set of applications, it also gives complete numerical analysis and recipes, which will enable users to quickly apply the techniques to real problems. The book begins with a description of implicit surfaces and their basic properties, then devises the level set geometry and calculus toolbox, including the construction of signed distance functions. Part II adds dynamics to this static calculus. Topics include the level set equation itself, Hamilton-Jacobi equations, motion of a surface normal to itself, re-initialization to a signed distance function, extrapolation in the normal direction, the particle level set method and the motion of co-dimension two (and higher) objects. Part III is concerned with topics taken from the fields of Image Processing and Computer Vision. These include the restoration of images degraded by noise and blur, image segmentation with active contours (snakes), and reconstruction of surfaces from unorganized data points. Part IV is dedicated to Computational Physics. It begins with one phase compressible fluid dynamics, then two-phase compressible flow involving possibly different equations of state, detonation and deflagration waves, and solid/fluid structure interaction. Next it discusses incompressible fluid dynamics, including a computer graphics simulation of smoke, free surface flows, including a computer graphics simulation of water, and fully two-phase incompressible flow. Additional related topics include incompressible flames with applications to computer graphics and coupling a compressible and incompressible fluid. Finally, heat flow and Stefan problems are discussed. A student or researcher working in mathematics, computer graphics, science, or engineering interested in any dynamic moving front, which might change its topology or develop singularities, will find this book interesting and useful.

5,249 citations

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TL;DR: Two methods of sharpening contact discontinuities-the subcell resolution idea of Harten and the artificial compression idea of Yang, which those authors originally used in the cell average framework-are applied to the current ENO schemes using numerical fluxes and TVD Runge-Kutta time discretizations.

Abstract: In this paper we extend our earlier work on the efficient implementation of ENO (essentially non-oscillatory) shock-capturing schemes. We provide a new simplified expression for the ENO construction procedure based again on numerical fluxes rather than cell-averages. We also consider two improvements which we label ENO-LLF (local Lax-Friedrichs) and ENO-Roe, which yield sharper shock transitions, improved overall accuracy, for lower computational cost than previous implementation of the ENO schemes. Two methods of sharpening contact discontinuities-the subcell resolution idea of Harten and the artificial compression idea of Yang, which those authors originally used in the cell average framework-are applied to the current ENO schemes using numerical fluxes and TVD Runge-Kutta time discretizations. The implementation for nonlinear systems and multi-dimensions is given. Finally, many numerical examples, including a compressible shock turbulence interaction flow calculation, are presented.

5,068 citations

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TL;DR: This paper proposes a “split Bregman” method, which can solve a very broad class of L1-regularized problems, and applies this technique to the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi functional for image denoising and to a compressed sensing problem that arises in magnetic resonance imaging.

Abstract: The class of L1-regularized optimization problems has received much attention recently because of the introduction of “compressed sensing,” which allows images and signals to be reconstructed from small amounts of data. Despite this recent attention, many L1-regularized problems still remain difficult to solve, or require techniques that are very problem-specific. In this paper, we show that Bregman iteration can be used to solve a wide variety of constrained optimization problems. Using this technique, we propose a “split Bregman” method, which can solve a very broad class of L1-regularized problems. We apply this technique to the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi functional for image denoising and to a compressed sensing problem that arises in magnetic resonance imaging.

3,843 citations

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

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07 Jun 2015TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).

Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.

29,453 citations

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28,684 citations

01 May 1993

TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.

Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

24,496 citations

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23 May 2011

TL;DR: It is argued that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas.

Abstract: Many problems of recent interest in statistics and machine learning can be posed in the framework of convex optimization. Due to the explosion in size and complexity of modern datasets, it is increasingly important to be able to solve problems with a very large number of features or training examples. As a result, both the decentralized collection or storage of these datasets as well as accompanying distributed solution methods are either necessary or at least highly desirable. In this review, we argue that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas. The method was developed in the 1970s, with roots in the 1950s, and is equivalent or closely related to many other algorithms, such as dual decomposition, the method of multipliers, Douglas–Rachford splitting, Spingarn's method of partial inverses, Dykstra's alternating projections, Bregman iterative algorithms for l1 problems, proximal methods, and others. After briefly surveying the theory and history of the algorithm, we discuss applications to a wide variety of statistical and machine learning problems of recent interest, including the lasso, sparse logistic regression, basis pursuit, covariance selection, support vector machines, and many others. We also discuss general distributed optimization, extensions to the nonconvex setting, and efficient implementation, including some details on distributed MPI and Hadoop MapReduce implementations.

14,958 citations