Other affiliations: Jilin University
Bio: Zhenbo Liu is an academic researcher from Yantai University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hydrogen bond & Natural bond orbital. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 54 publications receiving 1451 citations. Previous affiliations of Zhenbo Liu include Jilin University.
TL;DR: The study widens the application of monolayer Ti2CO2 not only as the battery material, but also as the potential gas sensor or capturer of NH3 with high sensitivity and selectivity.
Abstract: Ti2C is one of the thinnest layers in MXene family with high potential for applications. In the present study, the adsorption of NH3, H2, CH4, CO, CO2, N2, NO2, and O2 on monolayer Ti2CO2 was investigated by using first-principles simulations to exploit its potential applications as gas sensor or capturer. Among all the gas molecules, only NH3 could be chemisorbed on Ti2CO2 with apparent charge transfer of 0.174 e. We further calculated the current–voltage (I–V) relation using the nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method. The transport feature exhibits distinct responses with a dramatic change of I–V relation before and after NH3 adsorption on Ti2CO2. Thus, we predict that Ti2CO2 could be a promising candidate for the NH3 sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity. On the other hand, the adsorption of NH3 on Ti2CO2 could be further strengthened with the increase of applied strain on Ti2CO2, while the adsorption of other gases on Ti2CO2 is still weak under the same strain, indicating that the captur...
TL;DR: Using the perfluorinated fullerene cage (C20F20) as the electron hole, the alkali metal atoms (M = Na, K) and superalkali atoms with a smaller vertical detachment energy (VDE) value as the source of the electrons, Wang et al. as discussed by the authors constructed new nonlinear optical (NLO) organic single-caged electride salt molecules (M3O)− and (M 3O)+(e.
Abstract: It is well known that electrides are a type of multielectron many-cage solid salt with excess electron anions inside the cages. The main concern regarding these structures is how to construct the organic single-caged electride molecules with an electron inside its cage. Using the perfluorinated fullerene cage C20F20 as the electron hole, the alkali metal atoms (M = Na, K) and superalkali atoms (M3O, M = Na, K) with a smaller vertical detachment energy (VDE) value as the source of the electrons, we can construct new nonlinear optical (NLO) organic single-caged electride salt molecules M+(e@C20F20)− and (M3O)+(e@C20F20)− due to the long-range charge transfer from the (super)alkali to inside the cage, forming an electron-hole pair within the molecule. To measure the nonlinear optical response, static first hyperpolarizabilities (β0) and the superalkali effect on β0 are exhibited for these new molecules. The β0 values are 400 and 600 au for M+(e@C20F20)− which are considerably smaller than 13 000 and 10 000 au for (M3O)+(e@C20F20)−. It is revealed that the superalkali effect on the β0 value is dramatic and the β0 value increases by about 20–30 times. New single-caged superalkali electride salt molecules (M3O)+(e@C20F20)− possess not only a large nonlinear optical property but also higher stability. They hold potential as high-performance nonlinear optical materials.
TL;DR: A tetrel-hydride interaction was predicted and characterized in the complexes of XH3F···HM at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and NBO analyses demonstrate that both BD(H-M) → BD*(X-F) and BD-M → BD-H) orbital interactions play the stabilizing role in the formation of the complex.
Abstract: A tetrel–hydride interaction was predicted and characterized in the complexes of XH3F···HM (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn; M = Li, Na, BeH, MgH) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level, where XH3F and HM are treated as the Lewis acid and base, respectively. This new interaction was analyzed in terms of geometrical parameters, interaction energies, and spectroscopic characteristics of the complexes. The strength of the interaction is essentially related to the nature of X and M groups, with both the larger atomic number of X and the increased reactivity of M giving rise to a stronger tetrel–hydride interaction. The tetrel–hydride interaction exhibits similar substituent effects to that of dihydrogen bonds, where the electron-donating CH3 and Li groups in the metal hydride strengthen the binding interactions. NBO analyses demonstrate that both BDH–M → BD*X–F and BDH–M → BD*X–H orbital interactions play the stabilizing role in the formation of the complex XH3F···HM (X = C, Si, Ge, and Sn; M = Li, Na, BeH, and MgH). The major contr...
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the band gap modulation of O-terminated Ti2C (Ti2CO2) monolayer under biaxial (i.e., 4% and 14% biaaxial strain) and uniaxially (i.,e., 6% and 6%) strain through first-principles simulation.
Abstract: Ti2C is the thinnest member in the MXene family with great potential for applications. In the present study, we have investigated the band gap modulation of O-terminated Ti2C (Ti2CO2) monolayer under biaxial or uniaxial strain through first-principles simulation. Our results reveal that monolayer Ti2CO2 could undergo an indirect to direct band gap transition under the biaxial strain of ∼4%, and the uniaxial strain of ∼6%. Similarly, the band gap modulation also occurs in monolayer Zr2CO2 and Hf2CO2 when 10% and 14% biaxial strains are applied, respectively. The detailed reasons for the band gap modulation are also discussed. Our studies have crucial implications for the application of monolayer MXene in opto-electronics and optical devices.
TL;DR: This paper suggested some measures for enhancing the strength of the halogen bond relative to the hydrogen bond in the H(2)CS-HOX (X = F, Cl, and Br) system by means of quantum chemical calculations.
Abstract: The properties and applications of halogen bonds are dependent greatly on their strength. In this paper, we suggested some measures for enhancing the strength of the halogen bond relative to the hydrogen bond in the H2CS–HOX (X = F, Cl, and Br) system by means of quantum chemical calculations. It has been shown that with comparison to H2CO, the S electron donor in H2CS results in a smaller difference in strength for the Cl halogen bond and the corresponding hydrogen bond, and the Br halogen bond is even stronger than the hydrogen bond. The Li atom in LiHCS and methyl group in MeHCS cause an increase in the strength of halogen bonding and hydrogen bonding, but the former makes the halogen bond stronger and the latter makes the hydrogen bond stronger. In solvents, the halogen bond in the Br system is strong enough to compete with the hydrogen bond. The interaction nature and properties in these complexes have been analyzed with the natural bond orbital theory.
TL;DR: More than twenty 2D carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides of transition metals (MXenes) have been synthesized and studied, and dozens more predicted to exist.
Abstract: The family of 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides (collectively referred to as MXenes) has expanded rapidly since the discovery of Ti3C2 in 2011. The materials reported so far always have surface terminations, such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine, which impart hydrophilicity to their surfaces. About 20 different MXenes have been synthesized, and the structures and properties of dozens more have been theoretically predicted. The availability of solid solutions, the control of surface terminations and a recent discovery of multi-transition-metal layered MXenes offer the potential for synthesis of many new structures. The versatile chemistry of MXenes allows the tuning of properties for applications including energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, reinforcement for composites, water purification, gas- and biosensors, lubrication, and photo-, electro- and chemical catalysis. Attractive electronic, optical, plasmonic and thermoelectric properties have also been shown. In this Review, we present the synthesis, structure and properties of MXenes, as well as their energy storage and related applications, and an outlook for future research. More than twenty 2D carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides of transition metals (MXenes) have been synthesized and studied, and dozens more predicted to exist. Highly electrically conductive MXenes show promise in electrical energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, electrocatalysis, plasmonics and other applications.
TL;DR: Recent developments in preparation of GQDs are discussed, focusing on the main two approaches (top-down and bottom-down).
Abstract: Similar to the popular older cousins, luminescent carbon dots (C-dots), graphene quantum dots or graphene quantum discs (GQDs) have generated enormous excitement because of their superiority in chemical inertness, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Besides, GQDs, consisting of a single atomic layer of nano-sized graphite, have the excellent performances of graphene, such as high surface area, large diameter and better surface grafting using π–π conjugation and surface groups. Because of the structure of graphene, GQDs have some other special physical properties. Therefore, studies on GQDs in aspects of chemistry, physical, materials, biology and interdisciplinary science have been in full flow in the past decade. In this Feature Article, recent developments in preparation of GQDs are discussed, focusing on the main two approaches (top-down and bottom-down). Emphasis is given to their future and potential development in bioimaging, electrochemical biosensors and catalysis, and specifically in photovoltaic devices that can solve increasingly serious energy problems.
TL;DR: A σ-hole bond is a noncovalent interaction between a covalently-bonded atom of Groups IV-VII and a negative site, e.g. a lone pair of a Lewis base or an anion.
Abstract: A σ-hole bond is a noncovalent interaction between a covalently-bonded atom of Groups IV–VII and a negative site, e.g. a lone pair of a Lewis base or an anion. It involves a region of positive electrostatic potential, labeled a σ-hole, on the extension of one of the covalent bonds to the atom. The σ-hole is due to the anisotropy of the atom's charge distribution. Halogen bonding is a subset of σ-hole interactions. Their features and properties can be fully explained in terms of electrostatics and polarization plus dispersion. The strengths of the interactions generally correlate well with the magnitudes of the positive and negative electrostatic potentials of the σ-hole and the negative site. In certain instances, however, polarizabilities must be taken into account explicitly, as the polarization of the negative site reaches a level that can be viewed as a degree of dative sharing (coordinate covalence). In the gas phase, σ-hole interactions with neutral bases are often thermodynamically unfavorable due to the relatively large entropy loss upon complex formation.
TL;DR: The potential of MXenes for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dye waste, is addressed, along with their promise as catalysts for ammonium synthesis from nitrogen.
Abstract: Transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), a family of two-dimensional (2D) inorganic compounds, are materials composed of a few atomic layers of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. Ti3C2, the first 2D layered MXene, was isolated in 2011. This material, which is a layered bulk material analogous to graphite, was derived from its 3D phase, Ti3AlC2 MAX. Since then, material scientists have either determined or predicted the stable phases of >200 different MXenes based on combinations of various transition metals such as Ti, Mo, V, Cr, and their alloys with C and N. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have shown their exciting potential for energy conversion and electrochemical storage. To this end, we comprehensively summarize the current advances in MXene research. We begin by reviewing the structure types and morphologies and their fabrication routes. The review then discusses the mechanical, electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties of MXenes. The focus then turns to their exciting potential in energy storage and conversion. Energy storage applications include electrodes in rechargeable lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and supercapacitors. In terms of energy conversion, photocatalytic fuel production, such as hydrogen evolution from water splitting, and carbon dioxide reduction are presented. The potential of MXenes for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dye waste, is also addressed, along with their promise as catalysts for ammonium synthesis from nitrogen. Finally, their application potential is summarized.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that 2D metal carbide MXenes, which possess high metallic conductivity for low noise and a fully functionalized surface for a strong signal, greatly outperform the sensitivity of conventional semiconductor channel materials.
Abstract: Achieving high sensitivity in solid-state gas sensors can allow the precise detection of chemical agents. In particular, detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the parts per billion (ppb) level is critical for the early diagnosis of diseases. To obtain high sensitivity, two requirements need to be simultaneously satisfied: (i) low electrical noise and (ii) strong signal, which existing sensor materials cannot meet. Here, we demonstrate that 2D metal carbide MXenes, which possess high metallic conductivity for low noise and a fully functionalized surface for a strong signal, greatly outperform the sensitivity of conventional semiconductor channel materials. Ti3C2Tx MXene gas sensors exhibited a very low limit of detection of 50–100 ppb for VOC gases at room temperature. Also, the extremely low noise led to a signal-to-noise ratio 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of other 2D materials, surpassing the best sensors known. Our results provide insight in utilizing highly functionalized metallic...