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Institution

General Medical Council

GovernmentLondon, United Kingdom
About: General Medical Council is a(n) government organization based out in London, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Health care & Public health. The organization has 69 authors who have published 111 publication(s) receiving 1663 citation(s). The organization is also known as: GMC.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Robert Koch Institute in Germany estimates the incidence of melanoma skin cancer as seven cases in 100 000 persons (age‐standardized by the European standard rate), while population‐based studies presumably show higher incidence rates.
Abstract: Summary Background Population-based figures on skin cancer are essential for a realistic assessment of the personal disease burden, prevention modes and the need for caring. The Robert Koch Institute in Germany estimates the incidence of melanoma skin cancer as seven cases in 100 000 persons (age-standardized by the European standard rate). Population-based studies presumably show higher incidence rates of 10–16 cases in 100 000 persons. Few data exist for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) as this is not systematically registered in Germany. Objectives To present the first population-based results from the Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) Cancer Registry on incidence, stage distribution, clinical types and localization of skin cancer and to compare the results with other studies. Methods The Cancer Registry of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein with 3500 registering institutions, 100 of which are dermatological institutions, investigates all notifiable incident cancer cases according to international standards. From the recorded data all melanoma and NMSC cases were identified and evaluated. Results Between 1998 and 2001, 1784 malignant melanoma (MM) and 12 956 NMSC cases underwent diagnostic and analytical evaluation. For MM, age-standardized incidence rates were 12·3 and 14·8 in 100 000 men and women, respectively, and the mean age of men was greater than that of women (56·6 vs. 54·9 years, P < 0·05). Superficial spreading melanoma was the most frequent clinical type (39·1%). The tumours were predominantly located on the trunk in men (46·8%) in contrast to leg and hip in women (39·5%). For NMSC, the age-standardized incidence rates were 100·2 and 72·6 in 100 000 men and women, respectively. More than 80% of all tumours were basal cell carcinoma. Conclusions The first population-based data from Schleswig-Holstein on the characteristics (age, sex, histological subtypes, localization and stage) of skin tumours agree well with the existing literature and may thus be regarded as representative. However, markedly higher incidences for MM and NMSC in the north of Germany compared with other parts of the country were observed. As the incidence rates from the north of Germany fit well into the European geographical pattern, we assume no regional increase. Therefore, the official German estimates on cutaneous tumours may largely depend on regional factors and may not be regarded as representative for all regions in Germany.

269 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aims were to determine whether tests of technical skill on simple simulations can predict competence in the operating theatre and whether objective assessment in theoperating theatre by direct observation and video recording is feasible and reliable.
Abstract: Background: The aims were to determine whether tests of technical skill on simple simulations can predict competence in the operating theatre and whether objective assessment in the operating theatre by direct observation and video recording is feasible and reliable. Methods: Thirty-three general surgical trainees undertook five simple skill simulations (knotting, skin incision and suturing, tissue dissection, vessel ligation and small bowel anastomosis). The operative competence of each trainee was then assessed during two or three saphenofemoral disconnections (SFDs) by a single surgeon. Video recordings of the operations were also assessed by two surgeons. Results: The inter-rater reliability between direct observation and blinded videotape assessment was high (α = 0·96 (95 per cent confidence interval 0·92 to 0·98)). Backward stepwise regression analysis revealed that the best predictors of operative competence were the number of SFDs performed previously plus the simulation scores for dissection and ligation, the key components of SFD (64 per cent of variance explained; P = 0·001). Conclusion: Deconstruction of operations into their component parts enables trainees to practise on simple simulations representing each component, and be assessed as competent, before undertaking the actual operation. Assessment of surgical competence by direct observation and video recording is feasible and reliable; such assessments could be used for both formative and summative assessment. Copyright © 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Modernization of medical regulation has included the introduction of the Professional Performance Procedures by the UK General Medical Council in 1995, which has the power to assess any registered practitioner whose performance may be seriously deficient, thus calling registration into question.
Abstract: Background Modernization of medical regulation has included the introduction of the Professional Performance Procedures by the UK General Medical Council in 1995. The Council now has the power to assess any registered practitioner whose performance may be seriously deficient, thus calling registration (licensure) into question. Problems arising from ill health or conduct are dealt with under separate programmes. Methods This paper describes the development of the assessment programmes within the overall policy framework determined by the Council. Peer review of performance in the workplace (Phase 1) is followed by tests of competence (Phase 2) to reflect the relationship between clinical competence and performance. The theoretical and research basis for the approach are presented, and the relationship between the qualitative methods in Phase 1 and the quantitative methods in Phase 2 explored. Conclusions The approach is feasible, has been implemented and has stood legal challenge. The assessors judge and report all the evidence they collect and may not select from it. All their judgements are included and the voice of the lay assessor is preserved. Taken together, the output from both phases forms an important basis for remediation and training should it be required.

75 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jan 2020-BMJ
TL;DR: The next generation of scientists will need to combine generalist and specialist skills in order to compete in the rapidly changing world of information and communications.
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of infectious disease–related death worldwide; however, only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop disease. Factors that contribute to protection could prove to be promising targets for M. tuberculosis therapies. Analysis of peripheral blood gene expression profiles of active tuberculosis patients has identified correlates of risk for disease or pathogenesis. We sought to identify potential human candidate markers of host defense by studying gene expression profiles of macrophages, cells that, upon infection by M. tuberculosis, can mount an antimicrobial response. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed an association between the cytokine interleukin-32 (IL-32) and the vitamin D antimicrobial pathway in a network of interferon-γ– and IL-15–induced “defense response” genes. IL-32 induced the vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and DEFB4 and to generate antimicrobial activity in vitro, dependent on the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. In addition, the IL-15–induced defense response macrophage gene network was integrated with ranked pairwise comparisons of gene expression from five different clinical data sets of latent compared with active tuberculosis or healthy controls and a coexpression network derived from gene expression in patients with tuberculosis undergoing chemotherapy. Together, these analyses identified eight common genes, including IL-32, as molecular markers of latent tuberculosis and the IL-15–induced gene network. As maintaining M. tuberculosis in a latent state and preventing transition to active disease may represent a form of host resistance, these results identify IL-32 as one functional marker and potential correlate of protection against active tuberculosis.

67 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202110
202019
20196
20188
20173
20162