Advances in Parasitology
About: Advances in Parasitology is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Malaria. It has an ISSN identifier of 0065-308X. Over the lifetime, 774 publications have been published receiving 61220 citations. The journal is also known as: Adv. Parasitol..
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The Southern Cone Initiative to control domestic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is a substantial achievement based on the enthusiasm of the scientific community, effective strategies, leadership, and cost-effectiveness, which triggered the launch of other regional initiatives in Central America and in the Andean and Amazon regions.
Abstract: The Southern Cone Initiative (Iniciativa de Salud del Cono Sur, INCOSUR) to control domestic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is a substantial achievement based on the enthusiasm of the scientific community, effective strategies, leadership, and cost-effectiveness. INCOSUR triggered the launch of other regional initiatives in Central America and in the Andean and Amazon regions, which have all made progress. The Central American Initiative targeted the elimination of an imported triatomine bug (Rhodnius prolixus) and the control of a widespread native species (Triatoma dimidiata), and faced constraints such as a small scientific community, the difficulty in controlling a native species, and a vector control programme that had fragmented under a decentralized health system. International organizations such as the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have played an important role in bridging the gaps between fragmented organizational resources. Guatemala achieved virtual elimination of R. prolixus and ;reduction of Tri. Dimidiata and El Salvador and Honduras revitalized their national programmes. The programme also revealed new challenges. Tri. dimidiata control needs to cover a large geographic area efficiently with stratification, quality control, community mobilization, and information management. Stakeholders such as the National Chagas Program, the local health system and their communities, as well as local government must share responsibilities to continue comprehensive vector control.
TL;DR: This chapter presents the global distribution of Echinococcus species and human AE and CE in maps and summarizes the global data on host assemblages, transmission, prevalence in animal definitive hosts, incidence in people and molecular epidemiology.
Abstract: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are severe helminthic zoonoses. Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere where it is typically maintained in a wild animal cycle including canids as definitive hosts and rodents as intermediate hosts. The species Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus intermedius are the causative agents of CE with a worldwide distribution and a highly variable human disease burden in the different endemic areas depending upon human behavioural risk factors, the diversity and ecology of animal host assemblages and the genetic diversity within Echinococcus species which differ in their zoonotic potential and pathogenicity. Both AE and CE are regarded as neglected zoonoses, with a higher overall burden of disease for CE due to its global distribution and high regional prevalence, but a higher pathogenicity and case fatality rate for AE, especially in Asia. Over the past two decades, numerous studies have addressed the epidemiology and distribution of these Echinococcus species worldwide, resulting in better-defined boundaries of the endemic areas. This chapter presents the global distribution of Echinococcus species and human AE and CE in maps and summarizes the global data on host assemblages, transmission, prevalence in animal definitive hosts, incidence in people and molecular epidemiology.
TL;DR: These are the first estimates at a continental scale to explicitly include the fine spatial distribution of infection prevalence and population, and suggest that continent-wide control of parasites is, from a financial perspective, an attainable goal.
Abstract: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent of chronic human infections worldwide. Based on the demonstrable impact on child development, there is a global commitment to finance and implement control strategies with a focus on school-based chemotherapy programmes. The major obstacle to the implementation of cost-effective control is the lack of accurate descriptions of the geographical distribution of infection. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the use of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) to better understand helminth ecology and epidemiology, and to develop low-cost ways to identify target populations for treatment. This review explores how this information has been used practically to guide large-scale control programmes. The use of satellite-derived environmental data has yielded new insights into the ecology of infection at a geographical scale that has proven impossible to address using more traditional approaches, and has in turn allowed spatial distributions of infection prevalence to be predicted robustly by statistical approaches. GIS/RS have increasingly been used in the context of large-scale helminth control programmes, including not only STH infections but also those focusing on schistosomiasis, filariasis and onchocerciasis. The experience indicates that GIS/RS provides a cost-effective approach to designing and monitoring programmes at realistic scales. Importantly, the use of this approach has begun to transition from being a specialist approach of international vertical programmes to becoming a routine tool in developing public sector control programmes. GIS/RS is used here to describe the global distribution of STH infections and to estimate the number of infections in school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa (89.9 million) and the annual cost of providing a single anthelmintic treatment using a school-based approach (US$5.0-7.6 million). These are the first estimates at a continental scale to explicitly include the fine spatial distribution of infection prevalence and population, and suggest that traditional methods have overestimated the situation. The results suggest that continent-wide control of parasites is, from a financial perspective, an attainable goal.
TL;DR: In this paper, the origins and geographical spread of F. gigantica and F. hepatica were investigated by means of complete sequences of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS)−2 and ITS−1 and mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 from areas with only one fasciolid species.
Abstract: Fascioliasis, caused by liver fluke species of the genus Fasciola, has always been well recognized because of its high veterinary impact but it has been among the most neglected diseases for decades with regard to human infection. However, the increasing importance of human fascioliasis worldwide has re‐launched interest in fascioliasis. From the 1990s, many new concepts have been developed regarding human fascioliasis and these have furnished a new baseline for the human disease that is very different to a simple extrapolation from fascioliasis in livestock. Studies have shown that human fascioliasis presents marked heterogeneity, including different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns in different endemic areas. This heterogeneity, added to the present emergence/re‐emergence of the disease both in humans and animals in many regions, confirms a worrying global scenario. The huge negative impact of fascioliasis on human communities demands rapid action. When analyzing how better to define control measures for endemic areas differing at such a level, it would be useful to have genetic markers that could distinguish each type of transmission pattern and epidemiological situation. Accordingly, this chapter covers aspects of aetiology, geographical distribution, epidemiology, transmission and control in order to obtain a solid baseline for the interpretation of future results. The origins and geographical spread of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in both the ruminant pre‐domestication times and the livestock post‐domestication period are analyzed. Paleontological, archaeological and historical records, as well as genetic data on recent dispersal of livestock species, are taken into account to establish an evolutionary framework for the two fasciolids across all continents. Emphasis is given to the distributional overlap of both species and the roles of transportation, transhumance and trade in the different overlap situations. Areas with only one Fasciola spp. are distinguished from local and zonal overlaps in areas where both fasciolids co‐exist. Genetic techniques applied to liver flukes in recent years that are useful to elucidate the genetic characteristics of the two fasciolids are reviewed. The intra‐specific and inter‐specific variabilities of ‘pure’ F. hepatica and ‘pure’ F. gigantica were ascertained by means of complete sequences of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS)‐2 and ITS‐1 and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) cox1 and nad1 from areas with only one fasciolid species. Fasciolid sequences of the same markers scattered in the literature are reviewed. The definitive haplotypes established appear to fit the proposed global evolutionary scenario. Problems posed by fasciolid cross‐breeding, introgression and hybridization in overlap areas are analyzed. Nuclear rDNA appears to correlate with adult fluke characteristics and fasciolid/lymnaeid specificity, whereas mtDNA does not. However, flukes sometimes appear so intermediate that they cannot be ascribed to either F. hepatica‐like or F. gigantica‐like forms and snail specificity may be opposite to the one deduced from the adult morphotype. The phenotypic characteristics of adults and eggs of ‘pure’ F. hepatica and F. gigantica, as well as of intermediate forms in overlap areas, are compared, with emphasis on the definitive host influence on egg size in humans. Knowledge is sufficient to support F. hepatica and F. gigantica as two valid species, which recently diverged by adaptation to different pecoran and lymnaeid hosts in areas with differing environmental characteristics. Their phenotypic differences and ancient pre‐domestication origins involve a broad geographical area that largely exceeds the typical, more local scenarios known for sub‐species units. Phenomena such as abnormal ploidy and aspermic parthenogenesis in hybrids suggest that their separate evolution in pre‐domestication times allowed them to achieve almost total genetic isolation. Recent sequencing results suggest that present assumptions on fasciolid‐lymnaeid specificity might be wrong. The crucial role of lymnaeids in fascioliasis transmission, epidemiology and control was the reason for launching a worldwide lymnaeid molecular characterization initiative. This initiative has already furnished useful results on several continents. A standardized methodology for fasciolids and lymnaeids is proposed herein in order that future work is undertaken on a comparable basis. A complete understanding of molecular epidemiology is expected to help greatly in designing global actions and local interventions for control of fascioliasis.
TL;DR: The chapter provides a brief description of observed epidemiological patterns, concentrating on age-prevalence and age-intensity trends and a historical review of the development of the mathematical models of helminth infections.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter reviews the role of mathematical models in the investigations of the population or transmission dynamics of human helminths. It focuses on the biological assumptions employed in model construction, the insights that emerge from model analysis, the comparison of predictions with observed trends, and the estimation of parameter values from epidemiological data. The chapter provides a brief description of observed epidemiological patterns, concentrating on age-prevalence and age-intensity trends and a historical review of the development of the mathematical models of helminth infections. The chapter also discusses mathematical models for schistosome flukes, for intestinal nematodes, and for the filarial infections and the essential features of the models for specific infections to provide a general framework for the description of helminth transmission dynamics. The general framework is presented to consider the design of control policies for helminth infections in human communities.