# Showing papers in "Bulletin of the American Physical Society in 2016"

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TL;DR: The first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger were reported in this paper, with a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ.

Abstract: On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

4,375 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, high-resolution spatial proximity maps are consistent with a model in which a complex, including the proteins CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin, mediates the formation of loops by a process of extrusion.

Abstract: Significance When the human genome folds up inside the cell nucleus, it is spatially partitioned into numerous loops and contact domains. How these structures form is unknown. Here, we show that data from high-resolution spatial proximity maps are consistent with a model in which a complex, including the proteins CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin, mediates the formation of loops by a process of extrusion. Contact domains form as a byproduct of this process. The model accurately predicts how the genome will fold, using only information about the locations at which CTCF is bound. We demonstrate the ability to reengineer loops and domains in a predictable manner by creating highly targeted mutations, some as small as a single base pair, at CTCF sites. We recently used in situ Hi-C to create kilobase-resolution 3D maps of mammalian genomes. Here, we combine these maps with new Hi-C, microscopy, and genome-editing experiments to study the physical structure of chromatin fibers, domains, and loops. We find that the observed contact domains are inconsistent with the equilibrium state for an ordinary condensed polymer. Combining Hi-C data and novel mathematical theorems, we show that contact domains are also not consistent with a fractal globule. Instead, we use physical simulations to study two models of genome folding. In one, intermonomer attraction during polymer condensation leads to formation of an anisotropic “tension globule.” In the other, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin act together to extrude unknotted loops during interphase. Both models are consistent with the observed contact domains and with the observation that contact domains tend to form inside loops. However, the extrusion model explains a far wider array of observations, such as why loops tend not to overlap and why the CTCF-binding motifs at pairs of loop anchors lie in the convergent orientation. Finally, we perform 13 genome-editing experiments examining the effect of altering CTCF-binding sites on chromatin folding. The convergent rule correctly predicts the affected loops in every case. Moreover, the extrusion model accurately predicts in silico the 3D maps resulting from each experiment using only the location of CTCF-binding sites in the WT. Thus, we show that it is possible to disrupt, restore, and move loops and domains using targeted mutations as small as a single base pair.

930 citations

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874 citations

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TL;DR: Electrical writing is combined in solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.

Abstract: Manipulating a stubborn magnet Spintronics is an alternative to conventional electronics, based on using the electron's spin rather than its charge. Spintronic devices, such as magnetic memory, have traditionally used ferromagnetic materials to encode the 1's and 0's of the binary code. A weakness of this approach—that strong magnetic fields can erase the encoded information—could be avoided by using antiferromagnets instead of ferromagnets. But manipulating the magnetic ordering of antiferromagnets is tricky. Now, Wadley et al. have found a way (see the Perspective by Marrows). Running currents along specific directions in the thin films of the antiferromagnetic compound CuMnAs reoriented the magnetic domains in the material. Science, this issue p. 587; see also p. 558 Transport and optical measurements are used to demonstrate the switching of domains in the antiferromagnetic compound CuMnAs. [Also see Perspective by Marrows] Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 106 ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.

756 citations

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752 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate first room temperature and ultrabright single photon emission from a color center in two-dimensional multilayer hexagonal boron nitride.

Abstract: We demonstrate first room temperature, and ultrabright single photon emission from a color center in two-dimensional multilayer hexagonal boron nitride. Density Functional Theory calculations indicate that vacancy-related centers are a likely source of the emission.

706 citations

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506 citations

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TL;DR: Inspired by the relatively simple morphological blueprint provided by batoid fish such as stingrays and skates, a biohybrid system that enables an artificial animal—a tissue-engineered ray—to swim and phototactically follow a light cue is created.

405 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a sparse regression method for discovering the governing partial differential equation(s) of a given system by time series measurements in the spatial domain, which relies on sparsitypromoting techniques to select the nonlinear and partial derivative terms of the governing equations that most accurately represent the data, bypassing a combinatorially large search through all possible candidate models.

Abstract: We propose a sparse regression method capable of discovering the governing partial differential equation(s) of a given system by time series measurements in the spatial domain. The regression framework relies on sparsity-promoting techniques to select the nonlinear and partial derivative terms of the governing equations that most accurately represent the data, bypassing a combinatorially large search through all possible candidate models. The method balances model complexity and regression accuracy by selecting a parsimonious model via Pareto analysis. Time series measurements can be made in an Eulerian framework, where the sensors are fixed spatially, or in a Lagrangian framework, where the sensors move with the dynamics. The method is computationally efficient, robust, and demonstrated to work on a variety of canonical problems spanning a number of scientific domains including Navier-Stokes, the quantum harmonic oscillator, and the diffusion equation. Moreover, the method is capable of disambiguating between potentially nonunique dynamical terms by using multiple time series taken with different initial data. Thus, for a traveling wave, the method can distinguish between a linear wave equation and the Korteweg–de Vries equation, for instance. The method provides a promising new technique for discovering governing equations and physical laws in parameterized spatiotemporal systems, where first-principles derivations are intractable.

398 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, negative capacitance in a thin epitaxial ferroelectric film was observed to decrease with time, in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change.

Abstract: The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

385 citations

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TL;DR: The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems.

Abstract: Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.

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TL;DR: Experimental observation of ballistic (that is, with no scattering of electrons) conducting channels at bilayer graphene domain walls, which opens up opportunities for exploring unique topological phases and valley physics in graphene.

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TL;DR: S symmetry-protected 2D Dirac semimetals are presented, which feature Dirac cones at high-symmetry points that are not gapped by spin-orbit interactions and exhibit behavior distinct from both graphene and 3D DirAC semimetal fermions.

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TL;DR: Measurements of the Hall coefficient in magnetic fields up to 88 tesla are used to show that Fermi-surface reconstruction by charge order in the cuprate YBa2Cu3Oy ends sharply at a critical doping p’= 0.16 that is distinctly lower than the pseudogap critical point p* =0.19 (ref. 11).

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TL;DR: It is argued that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter, and this dependence on two simple geometric parameters that characterize the brain allows us to qualitatively explain how variations in these parameters lead to anatomical anomalies.

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TL;DR: This work uses electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling at room temperature, and paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and Magnon-Photon coupling.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate ordered arrays of polar vortices, made up of vortex-antivortex pairs, in ferroelectric/paraelectric superlattices.

Abstract: The complex interplay of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom provides a plethora of exotic phases and physical phenomena1–5. In recent years, complex spin topologies have emerged as a consequence of the electronic band structure and the interplay between spin and spin–orbit coupling in materials6,7. Here we produce complex topologies of electrical polarization— namely, nanometre-scale vortex–antivortex (that is, clockwise– anticlockwise) arrays that are reminiscent of rotational spin topologies6—by making use of the competition between charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in superlattices of alternating lead titanate and strontium titanate layers. Atomic-scale mapping of the polar atomic displacements by scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of long-range ordered vortex–antivortex arrays that exhibit nearly continuous polarization rotation. Phase-field modelling confirms that the vortex array is the low-energy state for a range of superlattice periods. Within this range, the large gradient energy from the vortex structure is counterbalanced by the corresponding large reduction in overall electrostatic energy (which would otherwise arise from polar discontinuities at the lead titanate/strontium titanate interfaces) and the elastic energy associated with epitaxial constraints and domain formation. These observations have implications for the creation of new states of matter (such as dipolar skyrmions, hedgehog states) and associated phenomena in ferroic materials, such as electrically controllable chirality. The ability to synthesize heteroepitaxial complex oxides has enabled unprecedented access to high-quality, single-crystalline materials and routes to manipulate order parameters8,9. In ferroelectric materials (that is, those possessing a spontaneous, switchable electrical polarization), epitaxial strain and advances in layer-by-layer growth techniques have enabled the study of the fundamental limits of ferroelectricity10,11 and the discovery of novel interfacial phenomena12,13. In short-period (of only a few unit cells) superlattices of PbTiO3/SrTiO3, researchers observed the emergence of ‘improper’ ferroelectricity arising from octahedral tilts in the SrTiO3 layer14–16 and this has motivated a number of additional studies of such effects17. At relatively large length scales (greater than 5 nm), interfaces still play a formative role, driving both bulk18 and thin-film19–21 ferroelectrics to form patterns of flux-closure polar domains, whose microstructures have been the topic of extensive research including atomic-scale polarization studies19,22,23. At intermediate length scales (tens of unit cells), theoretical studies have suggested that there is potential for topological structures such as vortices, waves and skyrmions24–30, depending on the interplay between strain, depolarization and gradient energies. In this work, we demonstrate ordered arrays of polar vortices, made up of vortex– antivortex pairs, in ferroelectric/paraelectric superlattices. Symmetric (SrTiO3)n/(PbTiO3)n superlattices with n = 2–27 were synthesized on DyScO3 (001)pc (where pc refers to the pseudocubic notation) substrates via reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)-assisted pulsed-laser deposition (details of the growth are provided in Methods and Extended Data Fig. 1). Superlattices are henceforth referred to using the ‘n × n’ shorthand wherein n corresponds to the thickness of the SrTiO3 and PbTiO3 layers in unit cells (structures depicted schematically on the right of Fig. 1a). Chemical analysis via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) confirms stoichiometric PbTiO3 within the detectability limits of the technique (±1%, Extended Data Fig. 2). A typical low-magnification, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM, details in Methods) image of the cross-section of a 10 × 10 superlattice taken along the [010]pc zone axis reveals the layer uniformity (Fig. 1a), and atomic-scale high-resolution STEM (HR-STEM) confirms sharp and coherent interfaces (Extended Data Fig. 3a). X-ray diffraction studies including symmetric Bragg scans (Fig. 1b) and reciprocal space maps (RSMs, Fig. 1c) reveal superlattice reflections in the out-of-plane direction (L, [001]pc) corresponding to the superlattice period of 9–10 nm. Sidelobe diffraction peaks are also observed along the in-plane direction (K, [010]pc) corresponding to a 9–10 nm periodicity (arising from a polar ordering which is discussed in the following section). Mapping of the atomic polar displacement (PPD) was performed to determine the polarization distribution within the superlattices. A displacement vector-mapping algorithm23 (details in Methods and Extended Data Figs 3 and 4) was implemented on the cross-sectional HR-STEM images to measure local non-centrosymmetry of the lattice. A vector map of these polar displacements within a 10 × 10 superlattice (Fig. 2a) shows the formation of long-range, ordered arrays of vortex structures with alternating rotation directions. The lateral periodicity is approximately the same as the superlattice period (~10 nm), closely matching the in-plane (K, [010]pc) periodicity observed in the RSMs. These vortices exhibit a continuous rotation of the local polarization vector, in contrast to segregation into uniform domains and domain walls typical of ferroelectric domain and flux-closure structures19–21. As a consequence, a dominant fraction of the PbTiO3 layers exhibit a continual rotation of PPD, as illustrated in maps of the curl (that is, vorticity) of the displacement vector field (∇ × PPD)[010] (Fig. 2c; additional details are provided in Methods and the full curl map corresponding to Fig. 2a is found in Extended Data Fig. 5a). To better understand the energetics of the vortex–antivortex states, we carried out phase-field modelling of the polarization structure as a function of superlattice periodicity (details in Methods). The phase-field-calculated polarization maps for the same 10 × 10 superlattice indicate the formation of a vortex–antivortex ground state bearing close resemblance to the experimental observations (Fig. 2d). Both inand out-of-plane long-range vortex ordering is observed by electron diffraction and dark-field transmission electron microscopy (DF-TEM) along cross-section and planar views (Fig. 3a and b, respectively). The cross-sectional DF-TEM images show a long-range

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TL;DR: The bulk-boundary correspondence is directly demonstrated and the topologically nontrivial nature of the Weyl semimetal state in TaP is established, by resolving the net number of chiral edge modes on a closed path that encloses the Wey node.

Abstract: Photoemission established tantalum phosphide as a Weyl semimetal, which hosts exotic Weyl fermion quasiparticles and Fermi arcs. Weyl semimetals are expected to open up new horizons in physics and materials science because they provide the first realization of Weyl fermions and exhibit protected Fermi arc surface states. However, they had been found to be extremely rare in nature. Recently, a family of compounds, consisting of tantalum arsenide, tantalum phosphide (TaP), niobium arsenide, and niobium phosphide, was predicted as a Weyl semimetal candidates. We experimentally realize a Weyl semimetal state in TaP. Using photoemission spectroscopy, we directly observe the Weyl fermion cones and nodes in the bulk, and the Fermi arcs on the surface. Moreover, we find that the surface states show an unexpectedly rich structure, including both topological Fermi arcs and several topologically trivial closed contours in the vicinity of the Weyl points, which provides a promising platform to study the interplay between topological and trivial surface states on a Weyl semimetal’s surface. We directly demonstrate the bulk-boundary correspondence and establish the topologically nontrivial nature of the Weyl semimetal state in TaP, by resolving the net number of chiral edge modes on a closed path that encloses the Weyl node. This also provides, for the first time, an experimentally practical approach to demonstrating a bulk Weyl fermion from a surface state dispersion measured in photoemission.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors use a fast simulation method that captures oriented cell-cell and cell-fluid interactions in a minimal model of discrete particle systems to predict the striking, counterintuitive result that in the presence of collectively generated fluid motion, the cells within the spiral vortex actually swim upstream against those flows.

Abstract: Concentrated suspensions of swimming microorganisms and other forms of active matter are known to display complex, self-organized spatiotemporal patterns on scales that are large compared with those of the individual motile units. Despite intensive experimental and theoretical study, it has remained unclear the extent to which the hydrodynamic flows generated by swimming cells, rather than purely steric interactions between them, drive the self-organization. Here we use the recent discovery of a spiral-vortex state in confined suspensions of Bacillus subtilis to study this issue in detail. Those experiments showed that if the radius of confinement in a thin cylindrical chamber is below a critical value, the suspension will spontaneously form a steady single-vortex state encircled by a counter-rotating cell boundary layer, with spiral cell orientation within the vortex. Left unclear, however, was the flagellar orientation, and hence the cell swimming direction, within the spiral vortex. Here, using a fast simulation method that captures oriented cell–cell and cell–fluid interactions in a minimal model of discrete particle systems, we predict the striking, counterintuitive result that in the presence of collectively generated fluid motion, the cells within the spiral vortex actually swim upstream against those flows. This prediction is then confirmed by the experiments reported here, which include measurements of flagella bundle orientation and cell tracking in the self-organized state. These results highlight the complex interplay between cell orientation and hydrodynamic flows in concentrated suspensions of microorganisms.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level.

Abstract: Controlled in-plane rotation of the magnetic easy axis in manganite heterostructures by tailoring the interface oxygen network could allow the development of correlated oxide-based magnetic tunnelling junctions with non-collinear magnetization, with possible practical applications as miniaturized high-switching-speed magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here, we demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level. The strong oxygen octahedral coupling is found to transfer the octahedral rotation, present in the NdGaO3 (NGO) substrate, to the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film in the interface region. This causes an unexpected realignment of the magnetic easy axis along the short axis of the LSMO unit cell as well as the presence of a giant anisotropic transport in these ultrathin LSMO films. As a result we possess control of the lateral magnetic and electronic anisotropies by atomic-scale design of the oxygen octahedral rotation.

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TL;DR: Using the nanoreactor, new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth are shown, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment, highlighting the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

Abstract: Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

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TL;DR: The energy, spectral width, and lifetime of the resultant polaron on both the attractive and the repulsive branches in the strongly interacting regime are characterized through the use of a Feshbach resonance and radio-frequency spectroscopy.

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TL;DR: It is revealed that properly designed nanostructures should enable nanometric jumping droplets, which would further enhance jumping-droplet condensers for heat transfer, antifogging, and antifrosting applications.

Abstract: It was recently discovered that condensation growing on a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface can spontaneously jump off the surface, triggered by naturally occurring coalescence events. Many reports have observed that droplets must grow to a size of order 10 μm before jumping is enabled upon coalescence; however, it remains unknown how the critical jumping size relates to the topography of the underlying nanostructure. Here, we characterize the dynamic behavior of condensation growing on six different superhydrophobic nanostructures, where the topography of the nanopillars was systematically varied. The critical jumping diameter was observed to be highly dependent upon the height, diameter, and pitch of the nanopillars: tall and slender nanopillars promoted 2 μm jumping droplets, whereas short and stout nanopillars increased the critical size to over 20 μm. The topology of each surface is successfully correlated to the critical jumping diameter by constructing an energetic model that predicts how large a nucleating embryo needs to grow before it can inflate into the air with an apparent contact angle large enough for jumping. By extending our model to consider any possible surface, it is revealed that properly designed nanostructures should enable nanometric jumping droplets, which would further enhance jumping-droplet condensers for heat transfer, antifogging, and antifrosting applications.