Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
About: Nanomaterials is an academic journal published by Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Medicine & Materials science. It has an ISSN identifier of 2079-4991. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 15940 publications have been published receiving 204564 citations. The journal is also known as: nanomaterials.
TL;DR: This review focused on the latest data regarding the biomedical use of AgNP-based nanostructures, including aspects related to their potential toxicity, unique physiochemical properties, and biofunctional behaviors, discussing herein the intrinsic anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities of silver-based Nanostructure.
Abstract: During the past few years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) became one of the most investigated and explored nanotechnology-derived nanostructures, given the fact that nanosilver-based materials proved to have interesting, challenging, and promising characteristics suitable for various biomedical applications. Among modern biomedical potential of AgNPs, tremendous interest is oriented toward the therapeutically enhanced personalized healthcare practice. AgNPs proved to have genuine features and impressive potential for the development of novel antimicrobial agents, drug-delivery formulations, detection and diagnosis platforms, biomaterial and medical device coatings, tissue restoration and regeneration materials, complex healthcare condition strategies, and performance-enhanced therapeutic alternatives. Given the impressive biomedical-related potential applications of AgNPs, impressive efforts were undertaken on understanding the intricate mechanisms of their biological interactions and possible toxic effects. Within this review, we focused on the latest data regarding the biomedical use of AgNP-based nanostructures, including aspects related to their potential toxicity, unique physiochemical properties, and biofunctional behaviors, discussing herein the intrinsic anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities of silver-based nanostructures.
TL;DR: This review is an amalgamation of recent advances in the field of functionalization of gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in the fields of medicine and biology.
Abstract: Metal nanoparticles are being extensively used in various biomedical applications due to their small size to volume ratio and extensive thermal stability. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are an obvious choice due to their amenability of synthesis and functionalization, less toxicity and ease of detection. The present review focuses on various methods of functionalization of GNPs and their applications in biomedical research. Functionalization facilitates targeted delivery of these nanoparticles to various cell types, bioimaging, gene delivery, drug delivery and other therapeutic and diagnostic applications. This review is an amalgamation of recent advances in the field of functionalization of gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in the field of medicine and biology.
TL;DR: Their added-value in the development of alternative, more effective antibiotics against multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has been highlighted and their production methods, physicochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetics are reviewed.
Abstract: Metal-based nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for a set of biomedical applications. According to the World Health Organization, in addition to their reduced size and selectivity for bacteria, metal-based nanoparticles have also proved to be effective against pathogens listed as a priority. Metal-based nanoparticles are known to have non-specific bacterial toxicity mechanisms (they do not bind to a specific receptor in the bacterial cell) which not only makes the development of resistance by bacteria difficult, but also broadens the spectrum of antibacterial activity. As a result, a large majority of metal-based nanoparticles efficacy studies performed so far have shown promising results in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this review has been a comprehensive discussion of the state of the art on the use of the most relevant types of metal nanoparticles employed as antimicrobial agents. A special emphasis to silver nanoparticles is given, while others (e.g., gold, zinc oxide, copper, and copper oxide nanoparticles) commonly used in antibiotherapy are also reviewed. The novelty of this review relies on the comparative discussion of the different types of metal nanoparticles, their production methods, physicochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetics together with the toxicological risk encountered with the use of different types of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents. Their added-value in the development of alternative, more effective antibiotics against multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has been highlighted.
TL;DR: This review discusses various enhancement technologies such as the use of ultrasounds for in-process nanoparticles dispersion and of processing aspects to reach optimal properties for using nanocomposites in the selected applications.
Abstract: For the last decades, nanocomposites materials have been widely studied in the scientific literature as they provide substantial properties enhancements, even at low nanoparticles content. Their performance depends on a number of parameters but the nanoparticles dispersion and distribution state remains the key challenge in order to obtain the full nanocomposites’ potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties, etc., that would allow extending their use in the industry. While the amount of existing research and indeed review papers regarding the formulation of nanocomposites is already significant, after listing the most common applications, this review focuses more in-depth on the properties and materials of relevance in three target sectors: packaging, solar energy and automotive. In terms of advances in the processing of nanocomposites, this review discusses various enhancement technologies such as the use of ultrasounds for in-process nanoparticles dispersion. In the case of nanocoatings, it describes the different conventionally used processes as well as nanoparticles deposition by electro-hydrodynamic processing. All in all, this review gives the basics both in terms of composition and of processing aspects to reach optimal properties for using nanocomposites in the selected applications. As an outlook, up-to-date nanosafety issues are discussed.
TL;DR: It was noticed that the smallest-sized spherical AgNPs demonstrated a better antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains as compared to the triangular and larger spherical shaped AgnPs.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of different spherical silver colloids occurring in the wavelength range of 397 to 504 nm, whereas triangular particles showed two peaks, first at 392 nm and second at 789 nm as measured by UV-VIS. The XRD spectra of the prepared samples indicated the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. The in vitro antibacterial properties of all synthesized AgNPs against two types of Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were examined by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility method. It was noticed that the smallest-sized spherical AgNPs demonstrated a better antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains as compared to the triangular and larger spherical shaped AgNPs.