Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications
American Geophysical Union
About: Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications is an academic journal published by American Geophysical Union. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Space weather & Geomagnetic storm. It has an ISSN identifier of 1542-7390. Over the lifetime, 1449 publications have been published receiving 36892 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2016) as mentioned in this paper is the latest version of the IRI model and includes two new model options for the F2 peak height hmF2 and a better representation of topside ion densities at very low and high solar activities.
Abstract: The paper presents the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2016) describing the most important changes and improvements that were included with this version and discussing their impact on the IRI predictions of ionospheric parameters. IRI-2016 includes two new model options for the F2 peak height hmF2 and a better representation of topside ion densities at very low and high solar activities. In addition, a number of smaller changes were made concerning the use of solar indices and the speedup of the computer program. We also review the latest developments toward a Real-Time IRI. The goal is to progress from predicting climatology to describing the real-time weather conditions in the ionosphere.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review the impact of scintillations on GPS receiver design and use and present a review of GPS and ionospheric scintillation for scientists interested in space weather.
Abstract:  Ionospheric scintillations are one of the earliest known effects of space weather. Caused by ionization density irregularities, scintillating signals change phase unexpectedly and vary rapidly in amplitude. GPS signals are vulnerable to ionospheric irregularities and scintillate with amplitude variations exceeding 20 dB. GPS is a weak signal system and scintillations can interrupt or degrade GPS receiver operation. For individual signals, interruption is caused by fading of the in-phase and quadrature signals, making the determination of phase by a tracking loop impossible. Degradation occurs when phase scintillations introduce ranging errors or when loss of tracking and failure to acquire signals increases the dilution of precision. GPS scintillations occur most often near the magnetic equator during solar maximum, but they can occur anywhere on Earth during any phase of the solar cycle. In this article we review the subject of GPS and ionospheric scintillations for scientists interested in space weather and engineers interested in the impact of scintillations on GPS receiver design and use.
TL;DR: In this article, the equipment and procedures used to make the measurements and to calibrate them, and discusses some of the “most-asked” questions about the data.
Abstract:  The 10.7 cm solar radio flux, or F10.7 is, along with sunspot number, one of the most widely used indices of solar activity. This paper describes the equipment and procedures used to make the measurements and to calibrate them, and discusses some of the “most-asked” questions about the data.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a semideterministic approach for forecasting GIC-related geomagnetic activity in which average overall activity is supplemented with statistical estimations of the amplitudes of GIC fluctuations.
Abstract: On 30 October 2003, an ongoing geomagnetic superstorm knocked down a part of the high- voltage power transmission system in southern Sweden. The blackout lasted for an hour and left about 50,000 customers without electricity. The incident was probably the most severe geomagnetically induced current ( GIC) failure observed since the well- known March 1989 Quebec blackout. The " three- phase'' storm produced exceptionally large geomagnetic activity at the Fennoscandian auroral region. Although the diversity of the GIC drivers is addressed in the study, the problems in operating the Swedish system during the storm are attributed geophysically to substorms, storm sudden commencement, and enhanced ionospheric convection, all of which created large and complex geoelectric fields capable of driving large GIC. On the basis of the basic twofold nature of the failure- related geoelectric field characteristics, a semideterministic approach for forecasting GIC- related geomagnetic activity in which average overall activity is supplemented with statistical estimations of the amplitudes of GIC fluctuations is suggested. The study revealed that the primary mode of GIC- related failures in the Swedish high- voltage power transmission system were via harmonic distortions produced by GIC combined with too sensitive operation of the protective relays. The outage in Malmo " on 30 October 2003 was caused by a combination of an abnormal switching state of the system and tripping of a low- set residual overcurrent relay that had a high sensitivity for the third harmonic of the fundamental frequency. (Less)
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of 100-year extreme geoelectric field and geomagnetically induced current (GIC) scenarios are explored by taking into account the key geophysical factors associated with the geomagnetic induction process.
Abstract: A series of 100-year extreme geoelectric field and geomagnetically induced current (GIC) scenarios are explored by taking into account the key geophysical factors associated with the geomagnetic induction process. More specifically, we derive explicit geoelectric field temporal profiles as a function of ground conductivity structures and geomagnetic latitudes. We also demonstrate how the extreme geoelectric field scenarios can be mapped into GIC. Generated statistics indicate 20 V/km and 5 V/km 100-year maximum 10-s geoelectric field amplitudes at high-latitude locations with poorly conducting and well-conducting ground structures, respectively. We show that there is an indication that geoelectric field magnitudes may experience a dramatic drop across a boundary at about 40°–60° of geomagnetic latitude. We identify this as a threshold at about 50° of geomagnetic latitude. The sub-threshold geoelectric field magnitudes are about an order of magnitude smaller than those at super-threshold geomagnetic latitudes. Further analyses are required to confirm the existence and location of the possible latitude threshold. The computed extreme GIC scenarios can be used in further engineering analyses that are needed to quantify the geomagnetic storm impact on conductor systems such as high-voltage power transmission systems. To facilitate further work on the topic, the digital data for generated geoelectric field scenarios are made publicly available.