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Journal Article

Broken windows: the police and neighbourhood safety

01 Jan 1982-The Atlantic Monthly (ATLANTIC MONTHLY)-Vol. 249, Iss: 3, pp 0-0
About: This article is published in The Atlantic Monthly.The article was published on 1982-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 2500 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Neighbourhood (mathematics) & CompStat.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of workplace incivility and explain how it can potentially spiral into increasingly intense aggressive behaviors, and examine what happens at key points: the starting and tipping points.
Abstract: In this article we introduce the concept of workplace incivility and explain how incivility can potentially spiral into increasingly intense aggressive behaviors. To gain an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie an “incivility spiral,” we examine what happens at key points: the starting and tipping points. Furthermore, we describe several factors that can facilitate the occurrence and escalation of an incivility spiral and the secondary spirals that can result. We offer research propositions and discuss implications of workplace incivility for researchers and practitioners.

2,527 citations


Cites background from "Broken windows: the police and neig..."

  • ...…can serve as a tipping point to more heinous crimes: the relatively trivial signal suggests to potential instigators that no one cares enough about the property to replace the window, thus signaling that inflicting additional damage in the area will not warrant reprimand (Wilson & Kelling, 1982)....

    [...]

  • ...Others have also used the term to describe social phenomena, such as crime, denoting the point at which seemingly trivial problems like petty crime and graffiti can escalate into widespread serious crime (Brown, 1978; Gladwell, 1996; Wilson & Kelling, 1982)....

    [...]

Reference EntryDOI
30 Oct 2009
TL;DR: An Ecological View of Schools and Their Impact on Development During Adolescence as mentioned in this paper is an ecological view of schools and their impact on development during adolescence, focusing on the impact of schools on the environment.
Abstract: An Ecological View of Schools and Their Impact on Development During Adolescence Level 1: Classrooms Level 1: Summary Level 2: School Buildings Summary of School-Level Effects Level 3: School Districts and Secondary School Transitions Level 4: Schools as Embedded Organizations in the Larger Community Secondary School Reform Efforts Summary and Conclusions Keywords: schools; teachers; achievement; motivation; social contexts

1,019 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Dec 2008-Science
TL;DR: This work generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments and found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread.
Abstract: Imagine that the neighborhood you are living in is covered with graffiti, litter, and unreturned shopping carts. Would this reality cause you to litter more, trespass, or even steal? A thesis known as the broken windows theory suggests that signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. This may cause neighborhoods to decay and the quality of life of its inhabitants to deteriorate. For a city government, this may be a vital policy issue. But does disorder really spread in neighborhoods? So far there has not been strong empirical support, and it is not clear what constitutes disorder and what may make it spread. We generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments. We found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread.

940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the effectiveness of policy options for deterring crime and find that some policies that are effective in preventing crime in the short term may be ineffective or even criminogenic in the long run because they may erode the foundation of the deterrent effect-fear of stigmatization.
Abstract: Evidence for a substantial deterrent effect is much firmer than it was two decades ago. However, large gaps in knowledge on the links between policy actions and behavior make it difficult to assess the effectiveness of policy options for deterring crime. There are four major impediments. First, analyses must estimate not only short-term consequences but also calibrate long-term effects. Some policies that are effective in preventing crime in the short term may be ineffective or even criminogenic in the long run because they may erode the foundation of the deterrent effect-fear of stigmatization. Second, knowledge about the relationship of sanction risk perceptions to policy is virtually nonexistent; such knowledge would be invaluable in designing effective crime-deterrent policies. Third, estimates of deterrent effects based on data from multiple governmental units measure a policy's average effectiveness across unit. It is important to understand better the sources of variation in response across place a...

893 citations