# Comments and Corrections to “Capacity of Multiple-Antenna Systems With Both Receiver and Transmitter Channel State Information”

TL;DR: In this paper, the ergodic capacity of the coherent MIMO channel in independent and identically distributed (IID) Rayleigh fading was derived, and the corrected plots present an interesting and compelling contrast between performances of coherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with and without channel state information.

Abstract: The correspondence cited in the above article derived ergodic capacity of the coherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel in independent and identically distributed (IID) Rayleigh fading. While the theoretical results are correct, several plots in the paper are incorrect. In this correspondence, we correct the plots. More importantly, the corrected plots present an interesting and compelling contrast between performances of the coherent MIMO systems with and without channel state information at the transmitter; whereas this view is somewhat limited in the above article because of flaws in the capacity curves.

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##### References

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Alcatel-Lucent

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the use of multiple transmitting and/or receiving antennas for single user communications over the additive Gaussian channel with and without fading, and derive formulas for the capacities and error exponents of such channels, and describe computational procedures to evaluate such formulas.

Abstract: We investigate the use of multiple transmitting and/or receiving antennas for single user communications over the additive Gaussian channel with and without fading. We derive formulas for the capacities and error exponents of such channels, and describe computational procedures to evaluate such formulas. We show that the potential gains of such multi-antenna systems over single-antenna systems is rather large under independenceassumptions for the fades and noises at different receiving antennas.

12,396 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a multiuser communication architecture for point-to-point wireless networks with additive Gaussian noise detection and estimation in the context of MIMO networks.

Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. The wireless channel 3. Point-to-point communication: detection, diversity and channel uncertainty 4. Cellular systems: multiple access and interference management 5. Capacity of wireless channels 6. Multiuser capacity and opportunistic communication 7. MIMO I: spatial multiplexing and channel modeling 8. MIMO II: capacity and multiplexing architectures 9. MIMO III: diversity-multiplexing tradeoff and universal space-time codes 10. MIMO IV: multiuser communication A. Detection and estimation in additive Gaussian noise B. Information theory background.

7,400 citations

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TL;DR: Results show that, given a fixed number of total antenna elements and under the same scattering condition (1) SIMO systems are equivalent to multiple-input-single-output systems and (2) it is preferable to distribute the number of antenna elements evenly between the transmitter and the receiver for a minimum outage probability performance.

Abstract: This paper extends Khatri (1964, 1969) distribution of the largest eigenvalue of central complex Wishart matrices to the noncentral case. It then applies the resulting new statistical results to obtain closed-form expressions for the outage probability of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems employing maximal ratio combining (known also as "beamforming" systems) and operating over Rician-fading channels. When applicable these expressions are compared with special cases previously reported in the literature dealing with the performance of (1) MIMO systems over Rayleigh-fading channels and (2) single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) systems over Rician-fading channels. As a double check these analytical results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations and as an illustration of the mathematical formalism some numerical examples for particular cases of interest are plotted and discussed. These results show that, given a fixed number of total antenna elements and under the same scattering condition (1) SIMO systems are equivalent to multiple-input-single-output systems and (2) it is preferable to distribute the number of antenna elements evenly between the transmitter and the receiver for a minimum outage probability performance.

370 citations

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TL;DR: This paper obtains a closed-form expression for the joint probability density function of k consecutive ordered eigenvalues and, as a special case, the PDF of the lscrthordered eigenvalue of Wishart matrices and proposes a general methodology to evaluate some multiple nested integrals of interest.

Abstract: Random matrices play a crucial role in the design and analysis of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In particular, performance of MIMO systems depends on the statistical properties of a subclass of random matrices known as Wishart when the propagation environment is characterized by Rayleigh or Rician fading. This paper focuses on the stochastic analysis of this class of matrices and proposes a general methodology to evaluate some multiple nested integrals of interest. With this methodology we obtain a closed-form expression for the joint probability density function of k consecutive ordered eigenvalues and, as a special case, the PDF of the lscrth ordered eigenvalue of Wishart matrices. The distribution of the largest eigenvalue can be used to analyze the performance of MIMO maximal ratio combining systems. The PDF of the smallest eigenvalue can be used for MIMO antenna selection techniques. Finally, the PDF the kth largest eigenvalue finds applications in the performance analysis of MIMO singular value decomposition systems.

178 citations

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TL;DR: Large capacity gains are available with optimal power and rate adaptation schemes and the increased capacity is shown to come at the price of channel outage, and bounds are derived for this outage probability.

Abstract: The capacity of multiple-antenna systems operating in Rayleigh flat fading is considered under the assumptions that channel state information (CSI) is available at both transmitter and receiver, and that the transmitter is subjected to an average power constraint. First, the capacity of such systems is derived for the special case of multiple transmit antennas and a single receive antenna. The optimal power-allocation scheme for such a system is shown to be a water-filling algorithm, and the corresponding capacity is seen to be the same as that of a system having multiple receive antennas (with a single transmitter antenna) whose outputs are combined via maximal ratio combining. A suboptimal adaptive transmission technique that transmits only over the antenna having the best channel is also proposed for this special case. It is shown that the capacity of such a system under the proposed suboptimal adaptive transmission scheme is the same as the capacity of a system having multiple receiver antennas (with a single transmitter antenna) combined via selection combining. Next, the capacity of a general system of multiple transmitter and receiver antennas is derived together with an equation that determines the cutoff value for such a system. The optimal power allocation scheme for such a multiple-antenna system is given by a matrix water-filling algorithm. In order to eliminate the need for cumbersome numerical techniques in solving the cutoff equation, approximate expressions for the cutoff transmission value are also provided. It is shown that, compared to the case in which there is only receiver CSI, large capacity gains are available with optimal power and rate adaptation schemes. The increased capacity is shown to come at the price of channel outage, and bounds are derived for this outage probability.

136 citations

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