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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Design optimization and large-signal simulation of DLHL Si IMPATT diode at 60 GHz

TL;DR: In this article, a four-level optimization technique has been used to design a double low-high-low (DLHL) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diode based on Si for 60 GHz operation.
Abstract: A four-level optimization technique has been used to design a double low-high-low (DLHL) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diode based on Si for 60 GHz operation. Initially the position of the charge bumps in both «- and p-epitaxial layers followed by the widths of those and the ratio of high to low doping concentrations have been varied subject to obtain the maximum large-signal DC to RF conversation efficiency from the device. Finally the bias current density is varied within a specified range to obtain the optimum value of it for which the DC to RF conversation efficiency of the device is maximum. The above mentioned four optimization steps have been repeated until the method converges to provide a stable optimized DC to RF conversion efficiency. A large-signal simulation technique based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation (NSVE) model developed by the authors is used for this purpose. The large-signal properties of the optimized DLHL Si IMPATT have been simulated and those are compared with the experimental results reported earlier. The said comparison shows that the optimized DLHL diode is capable of delivering significantly higher RF power output with greater DC to RF conversion efficiency at 60 GHz as compared to its un-optimized counterpart.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the current state of the art of silicon CW millimeter-wave IMPATT diodes and oscillators in the frequency range from 30 to 250 GHz is summarized.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the current state of the art of silicon CW millimeter-wave IMPATT diodes and oscillators in the frequency range from 30 to 250 GHz. Design procedures, fabrication, and packaging technology are reviewed, and the current performance of diode oscillators is reported. A brief account of present device reliability is also presented. The contrast between maturing device technology below 100 GHz and largely laboratory-based technology at higher frequencies is discussed. Finally, a prognosis of future developments is offered.

122 citations


"Design optimization and large-signa..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…and experimental studies on the DC and high frequency properties of these devices were carried out by several researchers for realizing higher power with higher conversion efficiency from these devices at different frequency bands as compared to single-drift Region (SDR) Si IMPATT devices....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1970
TL;DR: The double-drift region avalanche diode oscillator (p+pnn+) was proposed in this article, which has two drift regions and is essentially two complementary DA oscillators in series.
Abstract: The advantages of a double-drift-region avalanche diode oscillator are discussed. Conventional structures (p+nn+or n+pp+) are essentially single-drift-region devices in that transit-time delay (for IMPATT mode) and zone transit (for TRAPATT mode) occur in a single region of one impurity type. The proposed structure (p+pnn+) has two drift regions and is essentially two complementary avalanche diode oscillators in series.

44 citations


"Design optimization and large-signa..." refers background in this paper

  • ...I. INTRODUCTION Since the first proposal of flat profile double-drift Region (DDR) IMPATT diodes by Scharfetter et al. [1], theoretical and experimental studies on the DC and high frequency properties of these devices were carried out by several researchers for realizing higher power with higher…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a large-signal simulation model based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation is used to study the influence of skin depth on the parasitic series resistance of millimeter-wave IMPATT devices based on Silicon.
Abstract: An attempt is made in this paper to study the influence of skin depth on the parasitic series resistance of millimeter-wave IMPATT devices based on Silicon. The method is based on the concept of depletion width modulation of the device under large-signal condition. A large-signal simulation model based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation is used for this study. The electric field snap-shots of 35 GHz Single-Drift Region (SDR) and 94 GHz Double-Drift Region (DDR) IMPATT devices are first obtained from which the series resistances are estimated by incorporating the effect of skin depth in the modeling and simulation. The series resistances of these devices are also obtained by neglecting the effect of skin depth. The values of series resistances obtained from the simulation are compared with the corresponding experimentally reported values. It is observed that the series resistance estimated by including the skin effect is in closer agreement with the experimental values as compared to that without including the same. Thus the skin effect plays an important role for determining the series resistance of IMPATT devices at millimeter-wave frequency bands.

36 citations


"Design optimization and large-signa..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...…of it in time domain have been obtained by simultaneously solving both time and space dependent fundamental device equations such as Poisson’s equation, continuity equations and current density equations subject to appropriate time varying boundary conditions at the depletion layer edges [5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out for V-band (50-75 GHz) silicon double drift flat profile (DD) and double low high low (DLHL) IMPATT diodes as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out for V-band (50–75 GHz) silicon double drift flat profile (DD) and double low high low (DLHL) IMPATT diodes. The theoretical designs have been used for the experimental realisation of the diodes for CW operation. The epitaxial layers were grown by silicon molecular beam epitaxy which enabled the realisation of the complex DLHL profile at millimetre-wave frequencies in the silicon material system for the first time. The maximum obtained conversion efficiency is 14.3%. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results for both types of diodes shows general agreement and the superiority of the DLHL structure.

21 citations


"Design optimization and large-signa..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The design optimization study is carried out by using a large signal NSVE model and simulation....

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  • ...In the first iteration the locations of both the charge bumps in n- and p-epitaxial layers are varied from 0 to 0.060 µm and the optimum location of those are obtained for which the conversion efficiency is maximum....

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  • ...Chang et al. [3] investigated a DDR Low-High-Low (DLHL) Silicon IMPATT diode and presented the optimum design for better performance as regards high conversion efficiency and high output power....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, high efficiency silicon double-drift IMPATT diodes with a low-high-low doping profile structure are proposed, with efficiencies of 25 percent for 12 GHz, 24 percent for 18 GHz, and 19 percent for 50 GHz.
Abstract: High-efficiency silicon double-drift IMPATT diodes with a low-high-low doping profile structure are proposed. Devices with efficiencies of 25 percent for 12 GHz, 24 percent for 18 GHz, and 19 percent for 50 GHz, are Predicted by numerical calculations.

14 citations


"Design optimization and large-signa..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The basic principle underlying the higher efficiency of these devices is that the incorporation of highly doped impurity bumps in the flat profile devices leads to constriction of the avalanche multiplication region and consequent decrease of avalanche to drift zone voltage drop....

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