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Open accessPosted Content

Interpretable Multi-Modal Hate Speech Detection.

Abstract: With growing role of social media in shaping public opinions and beliefs across the world, there has been an increased attention to identify and counter the problem of hate speech on social media. Hate speech on online spaces has serious manifestations, including social polarization and hate crimes. While prior works have proposed automated techniques to detect hate speech online, these techniques primarily fail to look beyond the textual content. Moreover, few attempts have been made to focus on the aspects of interpretability of such models given the social and legal implications of incorrect predictions. In this work, we propose a deep neural multi-modal model that can: (a) detect hate speech by effectively capturing the semantics of the text along with socio-cultural context in which a particular hate expression is made, and (b) provide interpretable insights into decisions of our model. By performing a thorough evaluation of different modeling techniques, we demonstrate that our model is able to outperform the existing state-of-the-art hate speech classification approaches. Finally, we show the importance of social and cultural context features towards unearthing clusters associated with different categories of hate.

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Topics: Voice activity detection (52%)
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9 results found


Open accessPosted Content
Douwe Kiela1, Hamed Firooz1, Aravind Mohan1, Vedanuj Goswami1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: This work proposes a new challenge set for multimodal classification, focusing on detecting hate speech in multimodal memes. It is constructed such that unimodal models struggle and only multimodal models can succeed: difficult examples ("benign confounders") are added to the dataset to make it hard to rely on unimodal signals. The task requires subtle reasoning, yet is straightforward to evaluate as a binary classification problem. We provide baseline performance numbers for unimodal models, as well as for multimodal models with various degrees of sophistication. We find that state-of-the-art methods perform poorly compared to humans (64.73% vs. 84.7% accuracy), illustrating the difficulty of the task and highlighting the challenge that this important problem poses to the community.

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Topics: Binary classification (50%)

71 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.18653/V1/2020.ALW-1.7
01 Nov 2020-
Abstract: One challenge that social media platforms are facing nowadays is hate speech. Hence, automatic hate speech detection has been increasingly researched in recent years - in particular with the rise of deep learning. A problem of these models is their vulnerability to undesirable bias in training data. We investigate the impact of political bias on hate speech classification by constructing three politically-biased data sets (left-wing, right-wing, politically neutral) and compare the performance of classifiers trained on them. We show that (1) political bias negatively impairs the performance of hate speech classifiers and (2) an explainable machine learning model can help to visualize such bias within the training data. The results show that political bias in training data has an impact on hate speech classification and can become a serious issue.

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Topics: Voice activity detection (58%)

17 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
13 Mar 2021-arXiv: Multimedia
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the proliferation of fake news, propaganda, misinformation, and disinformation online. While initially this was mostly about textual content, over time images and videos gained popularity, as they are much easier to consume, attract much more attention, and spread further than simple text. As a result, researchers started targeting different modalities and combinations thereof. As different modalities are studied in different research communities, with insufficient interaction, here we offer a survey that explores the state-of-the-art on multimodal disinformation detection covering various combinations of modalities: text, images, audio, video, network structure, and temporal information. Moreover, while some studies focused on factuality, others investigated how harmful the content is. While these two components in the definition of disinformation -- (i) factuality and (ii) harmfulness, are equally important, they are typically studied in isolation. Thus, we argue for the need to tackle disinformation detection by taking into account multiple modalities as well as both factuality and harmfulness, in the same framework. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future research directions.

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Topics: Disinformation (62%), Modalities (50%)

5 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.18653/V1/2021.SOCIALNLP-1.8
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: As hate speech spreads on social media and online communities, research continues to work on its automatic detection. Recently, recognition performance has been increasing thanks to advances in deep learning and the integration of user features. This work investigates the effects that such features can have on a detection model. Unlike previous research, we show that simple performance comparison does not expose the full impact of including contextual- and user information. By leveraging explainability techniques, we show (1) that user features play a role in the model’s decision and (2) how they affect the feature space learned by the model. Besides revealing that—and also illustrating why—user features are the reason for performance gains, we show how such techniques can be combined to better understand the model and to detect unintended bias.

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2 Citations



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28 results found


Open accessPosted Content
Yoon Kim1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We report on a series of experiments with convolutional neural networks (CNN) trained on top of pre-trained word vectors for sentence-level classification tasks. We show that a simple CNN with little hyperparameter tuning and static vectors achieves excellent results on multiple benchmarks. Learning task-specific vectors through fine-tuning offers further gains in performance. We additionally propose a simple modification to the architecture to allow for the use of both task-specific and static vectors. The CNN models discussed herein improve upon the state of the art on 4 out of 7 tasks, which include sentiment analysis and question classification.

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7,814 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/2939672.2939778
13 Aug 2016-
Abstract: Despite widespread adoption, machine learning models remain mostly black boxes. Understanding the reasons behind predictions is, however, quite important in assessing trust, which is fundamental if one plans to take action based on a prediction, or when choosing whether to deploy a new model. Such understanding also provides insights into the model, which can be used to transform an untrustworthy model or prediction into a trustworthy one. In this work, we propose LIME, a novel explanation technique that explains the predictions of any classifier in an interpretable and faithful manner, by learning an interpretable model locally varound the prediction. We also propose a method to explain models by presenting representative individual predictions and their explanations in a non-redundant way, framing the task as a submodular optimization problem. We demonstrate the flexibility of these methods by explaining different models for text (e.g. random forests) and image classification (e.g. neural networks). We show the utility of explanations via novel experiments, both simulated and with human subjects, on various scenarios that require trust: deciding if one should trust a prediction, choosing between models, improving an untrustworthy classifier, and identifying why a classifier should not be trusted.

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6,284 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1145/3236009
Abstract: In recent years, many accurate decision support systems have been constructed as black boxes, that is as systems that hide their internal logic to the user. This lack of explanation constitutes both a practical and an ethical issue. The literature reports many approaches aimed at overcoming this crucial weakness, sometimes at the cost of sacrificing accuracy for interpretability. The applications in which black box decision systems can be used are various, and each approach is typically developed to provide a solution for a specific problem and, as a consequence, it explicitly or implicitly delineates its own definition of interpretability and explanation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification of the main problems addressed in the literature with respect to the notion of explanation and the type of black box system. Given a problem definition, a black box type, and a desired explanation, this survey should help the researcher to find the proposals more useful for his own work. The proposed classification of approaches to open black box models should also be useful for putting the many research open questions in perspective.

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Topics: Black box (57%), Interpretability (53%), Decision support system (51%)

1,564 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.18653/V1/D17-1070
Alexis Conneau1, Douwe Kiela2, Holger Schwenk, Loïc Barrault  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
05 May 2017-
Abstract: Many modern NLP systems rely on word embeddings, previously trained in an unsupervised manner on large corpora, as base features. Efforts to obtain embeddings for larger chunks of text, such as sentences, have however not been so successful. Several attempts at learning unsupervised representations of sentences have not reached satisfactory enough performance to be widely adopted. In this paper, we show how universal sentence representations trained using the supervised data of the Stanford Natural Language Inference datasets can consistently outperform unsupervised methods like SkipThought vectors on a wide range of transfer tasks. Much like how computer vision uses ImageNet to obtain features, which can then be transferred to other tasks, our work tends to indicate the suitability of natural language inference for transfer learning to other NLP tasks. Our encoder is publicly available.

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Topics: Supervised learning (54%), Sentence (53%), Transfer of learning (52%)

1,401 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Ryan Kiros1, Yukun Zhu1, Ruslan Salakhutdinov2, Richard S. Zemel2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: We describe an approach for unsupervised learning of a generic, distributed sentence encoder. Using the continuity of text from books, we train an encoder-decoder model that tries to reconstruct the surrounding sentences of an encoded passage. Sentences that share semantic and syntactic properties are thus mapped to similar vector representations. We next introduce a simple vocabulary expansion method to encode words that were not seen as part of training, allowing us to expand our vocabulary to a million words. After training our model, we extract and evaluate our vectors with linear models on 8 tasks: semantic relatedness, paraphrase detection, image-sentence ranking, question-type classification and 4 benchmark sentiment and subjectivity datasets. The end result is an off-the-shelf encoder that can produce highly generic sentence representations that are robust and perform well in practice. We will make our encoder publicly available.

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Topics: Sentence (57%), Semantic similarity (55%), Vocabulary (55%) ... read more

905 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20221
20216
20202