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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/19390211.2020.1731044

L-Threonic Acid Magnesium Salt Supplementation in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Dietary Supplements (J Diet Suppl)-Vol. 18, Iss: 2, pp 119-131
Abstract: Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect up to 5% of adults worldwide. Preclinical work demonstrates that L-Threonic Acid Magnesium Salt (LTAMS) administrat...

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3897/RRPHARMACOLOGY.6.59407
29 Dec 2020-
Abstract: Introduction: The relevance of the issue of increasing stress resistance is due to a significant deterioration in the mental health of the population caused by the special conditions of the disease control and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic Recently, the decisive role in the severity of clinico-physiological manifestations of maladjustment to stress is assigned to magnesium ions The aim of the work was to study the magnesium importance in the body coping mechanisms under stress for the pathogenetic substantiation of the magnesium correction in an unfavorable situation of disease control and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic Materials and methods: The theoretical basis of this scientific and analytical review was an analysis of modern Russian and foreign literature data posted on the electronic portals MEDLINE, PubMed-NCBI, Scientific Electronic Library eLIBRARY RU, Google Academy, and CyberLeninka Results and discussion: It was shown that the total magnesium level in the body plays the indicator role of the body functional reserves Acute and chronic stresses significantly increase the magnesium consumption and cause a decrease in its body content Magnesium deficiency is one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms of reducing stress resistance and adaptive body reserves Arising during the COVID-19 pandemic, increased nervous and emotional tension, the lack of emotional comfort and balance can lead to the onset or deterioration of magnesium deficiency, which manifests itself in mental burnout and depletion of adaptive capacities The inability to synthesize magnesium in the body necessitates including foodstuffs high in magnesium in the population diet during this period The appointment of magnesium preparations is pathogenetically justified with moderate and severe magnesium deficiency This therapy should take into account the major concomitant diseases, severity of magnesium deficiency, and a patient's age Conclusion: magnesium correction, carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic, will contribute to increasing stress resistance, preventing mental diseases and improving the population's life quality © 2020 Belgorod State National Research University All rights reserved

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4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14728214.2020.1846718
Abstract: Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder that can be treated with both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities. Effective drug treatm...

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/OMI.2021.0010
Abstract: Diabetes is a common chronic disease where therapeutics innovation is much needed. The search for novel antidiabetic molecules can be greatly facilitated by high throughput metabolomic characterization of herbal medicines. Cassia auriculata is a shrub used in Ayurvedic medicine and native to India and Sri Lanka. While C. auriculata has been used as a medicinal herb in diabetes, the molecular evidence for its antidiabetic medicinal potentials and components needs to be established. Moreover, the phytocomposition of the various plant parts is not fully known. We report a comprehensive metabolomic gas chromatography mass spectrometry study of the C. auriculata plant parts, including the leaf, flower, and bud. We identified a total of 102 primary and secondary metabolites in seven chemical groups, including amino acids (AA), carboxylic acids, nucleosides, fatty acids, among others. Interestingly, plant parts differed in their metabolomic signatures. While in the flowers and leaves nine and six AA were identified, respectively, no AA was detected in the buds. Some of the identified compounds have been previously noted for their antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic bioactivities. These findings offer a concrete metabolomic basis on the phytocomposition of individual C. auriculata plant parts. These omics data call for future research on the function of the identified compounds, and clinical studies to further evaluate their antidiabetic potentials and mechanisms of action in the clinic. Finally, we note that plant omics research offers an important avenue to inform, verify, and strengthen the evidentiary base and clinical testing of herbs with medicinal potentials.

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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.01.442231
02 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Rice beverages are traditionally prepared and consumed popularly by the different ethnic groups of North East India. To investigate its effects on behavior, mice were treated with different fractions of rice beverage that included the beverage as a whole, insoluble and soluble fractions. Intragastric treatments of these fractions were given to the mice (n=6 per group) for 30 days and behavioral studies were performed on elevated plus and Y maze to evaluate anxiety and spatial memory, respectively. Next generation sequencing of metagenomic DNA of the beverage indicated presence of 157 OTUs and 26 bacterial genera were dominant with an abundance of 0.1%. The insoluble fraction treated animals showed lowest anxiety like symptoms. Spatial memory improved in all the treatments compared to the control, of which the rice beverage treatment showed the highest levels (textit{p}textless 0.05). Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling of the beverage revealed 10 alcohols, 29 sachharides, 43 acids and 13 amino acids. Findings of this study suggest a positive effect of rice beverage components on anxiety and spatial memory of mice.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S42779-021-00090-8
Abstract: Rice beverages are traditionally prepared and consumed popularly by the different ethnic groups of North East India and claimed to have several health benefits. In an attempt to validate the traditional claims, effects of different fractions of the beverage were studied using mouse model. To investigate its effects on behavior, mice were treated with different fractions of rice beverage that included the beverage as a whole, insoluble and soluble fractions. Intragastric treatments of these fractions were given to the mice (n = 6 per group) for 30 days, and behavioral studies were performed on elevated plus and Y maze to evaluate anxiety and spatial memory, respectively. Next-generation sequencing of metagenomic DNA of the beverage indicated the presence of 157 OTUs, and 26 bacterial genera were dominant with an abundance of 0.1%. The insoluble fraction and the whole beverage treatments reduced the anxiety-like symptoms in animals indicating the probable role of microbes. Spatial memory improved in all the treatments compared to the control, of which the rice beverage treatment showed the highest levels (p < 0.05). Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling of the beverage revealed 10 alcohols, 29 sachharides, 43 acids, and 13 amino acids. Findings of this study suggest a positive effect of rice beverage on anxiety and spatial memory of mice, justifying the claims by ethnic communities on its role on mood regulation.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1176/AJP.2007.164.6.942
Abstract: Objective: The worldwide prevalence estimates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/hyperkinetic disorder (HD) are highly heterogeneous. Presently, the reasons for this discrepancy remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible causes of the varied worldwide estimates of the disorder and to compute its worldwide-pooled prevalence. Method: The authors searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases from January 1978 to December 2005 and reviewed textbooks and reference lists of the studies selected. Authors of relevant articles from North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East and ADHD/HD experts were contacted. Surveys were included if they reported point prevalence of ADHD/HD for subjects 18 years of age or younger from the general population or schools according to DSM or ICD criteria. Results: The literature search generated 9,105 records, and 303 full-text articles were reviewed. One hundred and two studies comprising 171,756 ...

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4,230 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1176/APPI.AJP.163.4.716
Abstract: Objective: Despite growing interest in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about its prevalence or correlates. Method: A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability subsample (N=3,199) of 18–44-year-old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 respondents, oversampling those with positive screen results. Multiple imputation was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD. Results: The estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD was 4.4%. Significant correlates included being male, previously married, unemployed, and non-Hispanic white. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with many other DSM-IV disorders assessed in the survey and was associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases were u...

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3,058 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1192/BJP.BP.106.034389
John Fayyad1, R. de Graaf2, Ronald C. Kessler3, Jordi Alonso  +11 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Background Little is known about the epidemiology of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aims To estimate the prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Method An ADHD screen was administered to respondents aged 18-44 years in ten countries in the Americas, Europe and the Middle East (n=11422). Masked clinical reappraisal interviews were administered to 154 US respondents to calibrate the screen. Multiple imputation was used to estimate prevalence and correlates based on the assumption of cross-national calibration comparability. Results Estimates of ADHD prevalence averaged 3.4% (range 1.2-7.3%), with lower prevalence in lower-income countries (1.9%) compared with higher-income countries (4.2%). Adult ADHD often co-occurs with other DSM-IV disorders and is associated with considerable role disability. Few cases are treated for ADHD, but in many cases treatment is given for comorbid disorders. Conclusions Adult ADHD should be considered more seriously in future epidemiological and clinical studies than is currently the case.

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1,139 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0010-440X(96)90022-X
Kevin R. Murphy1, Russell A. Barkley1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized as a legitimate adult diagnostic category. Yet the nature of and comorbidities and adaptive impairments associated with adult ADHD have received little scientific investigation. The present study, therefore, compared 172 adults diagnosed with ADHD with 30 adults referred to the same adult ADHD clinic who were not so diagnosed. The ADHD group showed a significantly greater prevalence of oppositional, conduct, and substance abuse disorders, and greater illegal substance use than control adults. Moreover, adults with ADHD displayed greater self-reported psychological maladjustment, more driving risks (speeding violations), and more frequent changes in employment. Significantly more ADHD adults had experienced a suspension of their driver license, had performed poorly, quit, or been fired from their job, and had a history of poorer educational performance and more frequent school disciplinary actions against them than adults without ADHD. Multiple marriages were more likely in the ADHD group as well. Contrary to previous studies, anxiety and mood disorders were not found to be more prevalent in the ADHD than in the control group. Results suggest that ADHD in adults is associated with relatively specific risks for disruptive behavior disorders, school and job performance problems, and driving risks.

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Topics: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (57.99%), Poison control (52%), Mood disorders (51%) ... show more

676 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00889-1
Abstract: To assess the validity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we reviewed clinical, family, psychopharmacologic, neurobiological, and outcome studies. We found multiple reports describing adults with clinical features highly reminiscent of the childhood ADHD. These adults, who are impulsive, inattentive, and restless, have the clinical “look and feel” of ADHD children. As with their childhood counterparts, many adults with ADHD suffer from antisocial, depressive, and anxiety disorders. They also show clinically significant impairments—histories of school failure, occupational problems, and traffic accidents. Studies of biological features show correspondences between child and adult cases of ADHD. Both show familial aggregation and a characteristic profile of neuropsychologic deficits; an emerging neuroimaging literature suggests that abnormalities in the same brain regions underlie both the child and adult forms of the disorder. Although these converging lines of evidence support the validity of ADHD in adults, follow-up studies of ADHD children have yielded ambiguous results. This ambiguity is in part due to differences in how researchers define the persistence of ADHD, a problem that suggests future research focus on how best to diagnose ADHD in adulthood.

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633 Citations