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Journal ArticleDOI

Multidisciplinary care: Experience of patients with complex needs

05 Mar 2014-Australian Journal of Primary Health (CSIRO PUBLISHING)-Vol. 20, Iss: 1, pp 20-26

TL;DR: Perceptions of the diabetic patients' experience of multidisciplinary care, in particular their perceptions, perceived barriers and facilitators, showed that patients found it inconvenient to be referred to many health professionals because of multiple physical and psychosocial barriers.

AbstractThe rapidly increasing prevalence of diabetes with its high morbidity and mortality raises the need for an integratedmultidisciplinaryservicefromhealthcareprovidersacrosshealthsectors.Theaimofthisstudywastoexplorethe diabetic patients' experience of multidisciplinary care, in particular their perceptions, perceived barriers and facilitators. Thirteenpatientswithtype-2diabetesadmittedtotheemergencydepartmentofalocalhospitalinNSWwereinterviewedand completed a demographic questionnaire. Results showed that patients found it inconvenient to be referred to many health professionals because of multiple physical and psychosocial barriers. Separate sets of instructions from different health professionalswereoverwhelming,confusingandconflicting.Lackofadedicatedcoordinatorofcare,followupandsupport forself-managementfromhealthprofessionalswerefactorsthatcontributedtopatients'challengesinbeingactivelyinvolved in their care. The presence of multiple co-morbidities made it more difficult for patients to juggle priorities and 'commitments' to many health professionals. In addition, complex socioeconomic and cultural issues, such as financial difficulties, lack of transport and language barriers, intensified the challenge for these patients to navigate the health system independently.Fewpatientsfeltthathavingmanyhealthprofessionalsinvolvedintheircareimprovedtheirdiabetescontrol. Communicationamongthemultidisciplinarycareteamwasfragmentedandhadanegativeeffectonthecoordinationofcare. The patients' perspective is important to identify the problems they experience and to formulate strategies for improving multidisciplinary care for patients with diabetes.

Topics: Health care (62%), Population health (57%), Community health (56%), Multidisciplinary approach (54%), Public health (53%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of how patients with multimorbidity experience a range of system- and professional-related issues with healthcare delivery illustrates the diversity of aspects that should be considered in designing healthcare services for patients with multi- health problems.
Abstract: Background : The number of patients with multimorbidity (two or more conditions) is increasing. Observational research has shown that having multiple health problems is associated with poorer outcomes in terms of health, quality of care, and costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand how patients with multimorbidity experience their healthcare process. Insight into patient experiences can be used to tailor healthcare provision specifically to the needs of patients with multimorbidity. Objective : To synthesize self-reported experiences with the healthcare process of patients with multimorbidity, and identify overarching themes. Design : A scoping literature review that evaluates both qualitative and quantitative studies published in PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. No restrictions were applied to healthcare setting or year of publication. Studies were included if they reported experiences with the healthcare process of patients with multimorbidity. Patient experiences were extracted and subjected to thematic analysis (interpretative), which revealed overarching themes by mapping their interrelatedness. Results : Overall, 22 empirical studies reported experiences of patients with multimorbidity. Thematic analysis identified 12 themes within these studies. The key overarching theme was the experience of a lack of holistic care. Patients also experienced insufficient guidance from healthcare providers. Patients also perceived system-related issues such as problems stemming from poor professional-to-professional communication. Conclusions : Patients with multimorbidity experience a range of system- and professional-related issues with healthcare delivery. This overview illustrates the diversity of aspects that should be considered in designing healthcare services for patients with multimorbidity. Journal of Comorbidity 2017;7(1):11–21

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background The Multispecialty Community Provider (MCP) model was introduced to the NHS as a primary care-led, community-based integrated care model to provide better quality, experience and value for local populations. Objectives The three main objectives were to (1) articulate the underlying programme theories for the MCP model of care; (2) identify sources of theoretical, empirical and practice evidence to test the programme theories; and (3) explain how mechanisms used in different contexts contribute to outcomes and process variables. Design There were three main phases: (1) identification of programme theories from logic models of MCP vanguards, prioritising key theories for investigation; (2) appraisal, extraction and analysis of evidence against a best-fit framework; and (3) realist reviews of prioritised theory components and maps of remaining theory components. Main outcome measures The quadruple aim outcomes addressed population health, cost-effectiveness, patient experience and staff experience. Data sources Searches of electronic databases with forward- and backward-citation tracking, identifying research-based evidence and practice-derived evidence. Review methods A realist synthesis was used to identify, test and refine the following programme theory components: (1) community-based, co-ordinated care is more accessible; (2) place-based contracting and payment systems incentivise shared accountability; and (3) fostering relational behaviours builds resilience within communities. Results Delivery of a MCP model requires professional and service user engagement, which is dependent on building trust and empowerment. These are generated if values and incentives for new ways of working are aligned and there are opportunities for training and development. Together, these can facilitate accountability at the individual, community and system levels. The evidence base relating to these theory components was, for the most part, limited by initiatives that are relatively new or not formally evaluated. Support for the programme theory components varies, with moderate support for enhanced primary care and community involvement in care, and relatively weak support for new contracting models. Strengths and limitations The project benefited from a close relationship with national and local MCP leads, reflecting the value of the proximity of the research team to decision-makers. Our use of logic models to identify theories of change could present a relatively static position for what is a dynamic programme of change. Conclusions Multispecialty Community Providers can be described as complex adaptive systems (CASs) and, as such, connectivity, feedback loops, system learning and adaptation of CASs play a critical role in their design. Implementation can be further reinforced by paying attention to contextual factors that influence behaviour change, in order to support more integrated working. Future work A set of evidence-derived ‘key ingredients’ has been compiled to inform the design and delivery of future iterations of population health-based models of care. Suggested priorities for future research include the impact of enhanced primary care on the workforce, the effects of longer-term contracts on sustainability and capacity, the conditions needed for successful continuous improvement and learning, the role of carers in patient empowerment and how community participation might contribute to community resilience.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Coordinated, multidisciplinary diabetes team care is understood by and acceptable to patients with type 2 diabetes.
Abstract: Aims To explore the patient perspective on coordinated multidisciplinary diabetes team care among a socioeconomically diverse group of adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Qualitative research design using 8 focus groups (n = 53). We randomly sampled primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and conducted focus groups at their primary care clinic. Discussion prompts queried current perceptions of team care. Each focus group was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and independently coded by three reviewers. Coding used an iterative process. Thematic saturation was achieved. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Most participants believed that coordinated multidisciplinary diabetes team care was a good approach, feeling that diabetes was too complicated for any one care team member to manage. Primary care physicians were seen as too busy to manage diabetes alone, and participants were content to be treated by other care team members, especially if there was a single point of contact and the care was coordinated. Participants suggested that an ideal multidisciplinary approach would additionally include support for exercise and managing socioeconomic challenges, components perceived to be missing from the existing approach to diabetes care. Conclusions Coordinated, multidisciplinary diabetes team care is understood by and acceptable to patients with type 2 diabetes.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The co-location of GPs with other professionals and their joint working as experienced in PCCs seems to represent a greater benefit for patients, especially for those with complex needs who use primary care, hospitals, emergency care and specialized care frequently.
Abstract: Several countries have co-located General Practitioners (GPs) in Primary Care Centres (PCCs) with other health and social care professionals in order to improve integrated care. It is not clear whether the co-location of a multidisciplinary team actually facilitates a positive patient experience concerning GP care. The aim of this study was to verify whether the co-location of GPs in PCCs is associated positively with patient satisfaction with their GP when patients have experience of a multidisciplinary team. We also investigated whether patients who frequently use health services, due to their complex needs, benefitted the most from the co-location of a multidisciplinary team. The study used data from a population survey carried out in Tuscany (central Italy) at the beginning of 2015 to evaluate the patients’ experience and satisfaction with their GPs. Multilevel linear regression models were implemented to verify the relationship between patient satisfaction and co-location. This key explanatory variable was measured by considering both the list of GPs working in PCCs and the answers of surveyed patients who had experienced the co-location of their GP in a multidisciplinary team. We also explored the effect modification on patient satisfaction due to the use of hospitalisation, access to emergency departments and visits with specialists, by performing the multilevel modelling on two strata of patient data: frequent and non-frequent health service users. A sample of 2025 GP patients were included in the study, 757 of which were patients of GPs working in a PCC. Patient satisfaction with their GP was generally positive. Results showed that having a GP working within a PCC and the experience of the co-located multidisciplinary team were associated with a higher satisfaction (p < 0.01). For non-frequent users of health services on the other hand, the co-location of multidisciplinary team in PCCs was not significantly associated with patient satisfaction, whereas for frequent users, the strength of relationships identified in the overall model increased (p < 0.01). The co-location of GPs with other professionals and their joint working as experienced in PCCs seems to represent a greater benefit for patients, especially for those with complex needs who use primary care, hospitals, emergency care and specialized care frequently.

13 citations


Cites background from "Multidisciplinary care: Experience ..."

  • ...Because of their complex needs, all these patients use health services frequently, and interact frequently with social and health professionals and in particular with different primary and secondary care providers, with a high risk of experiencing fragmentation in their care pathway [19]....

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  • ...These patients have a greater risk of fragmentation in their care pathway [19], and they require a more coordinated and comprehensive care [10]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigating the information-seeking experiences of patients with Type 2 diabetes and how these influenced self-management behaviours found inconsistent and insufficient information from healthcare professionals undermined patients' ability to self-manage diabetes.
Abstract: Aims To explore the information-seeking experiences of patients with Type 2 diabetes and how these influenced self-management behaviours. Methods We interviewed 18 patients with Type 2 Diabetes attending outpatient diabetes centers in South Western Sydney. Data were analyzed thematically. Results Patients described a number of challenges they faced when seeking information about diabetes self-management. One major challenge was receiving inconsistent and insufficient information from healthcare professionals, which consequently undermined patients’ ability to self-manage diabetes. This became a disincentive in carrying out self-management tasks, and led to confusion and mistrust regarding the veracity of information received. Participants also described finding reliable information, and difficulty understanding and accessing relevant information as challenges. Medical jargon and lack of comprehensive explanations exacerbated knowledge deficits compounded by the complex maze of internet resources that some patients accessed. In response to what they perceived as confusing or inconsistent information, some patients followed “their own way” of managing their diabetes. Conclusions Inconsistent information not tailored to the needs of patients adversely affects self-management. Taking time to provide simple explanations and assisting patients in navigating reliable web resources is becoming a vital role of healthcare professionals to reduce knowledge gaps in patients with low health literacy.

9 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The CCM is described, its use in intensive quality improvement activities with more than 100 health care organizations, and insights gained in the process are described, to guide quality improvement.
Abstract: The growing number of persons suffering from major chronic illnesses face many obstacles in coping with their condition, not least of which is medical care that often does not meet their needs for effective clinical management, psychological support, and information. The primary reason for this may be the mismatch between their needs and care delivery systems largely designed for acute illness. Evidence of effective system changes that improve chronic care is mounting. We have tried to summarize this evidence in the Chronic Care Model (CCM) to guide quality improvement. In this paper we describe the CCM, its use in intensive quality improvement activities with more than 100 health care organizations, and insights gained in the process.

3,068 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The challenge is to organize these components into an integrated system of chronic illness care, which can be done most efficiently and effectively in primary care practice rather than requiring specialized systems of care.
Abstract: Usual medical care often fails to meet the needs of chronically ill patients, even in managed, integrated delivery systems. The medical literature suggests strategies to improve outcomes in these patients. Effective interventions tend to fall into one of five areas: the use of evidence-based, planned care; reorganization of practice systems and provider roles; improved patient self-management support; increased access to expertise; and greater availability of clinical information. The challenge is to organize these components into an integrated system of chronic illness care. Whether this can be done most efficiently and effectively in primary care practice rather than requiring specialized systems of care remains unanswered.

2,663 citations


"Multidisciplinary care: Experience ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The Chronic Care Model (CCM) describes six elements that are essential for improving the quality of care for patients with chronic disease (Wagner et al. 1996)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jul 2002-JAMA
TL;DR: Inadequate health literacy may contribute to the disproportionate burden of diabetes-related problems among disadvantaged populations and efforts should focus on developing and evaluating interventions to improve diabetes outcomes among patients with inadequate health literacy.
Abstract: ContextHealth literacy is a measure of patients' ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Poor health literacy is common among racial and ethnic minorities, elderly persons, and patients with chronic conditions, particularly in public-sector settings. Little is known about the extent to which health literacy affects clinical health outcomes.ObjectivesTo examine the association between health literacy and diabetes outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsCross-sectional observational study of 408 English- and Spanish-speaking patients who were older than 30 years and had type 2 diabetes identified from the clinical database of 2 primary care clinics of a university-affiliated public hospital in San Francisco, Calif. Participants were enrolled and completed questionnaires between June and December 2000. We assessed patients' health literacy by using the short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA) in English or Spanish.Main Outcome MeasuresMost recent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level. Patients were classified as having tight glycemic control if their HbA1c was in the lowest quartile and poor control if it was in the highest quartile. We also measured the presence of self-reported diabetes complications.ResultsAfter adjusting for patients' sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, social support, treatment regimen, and years with diabetes, for each 1-point decrement in s-TOFHLA score, the HbA1c value increased by 0.02 (P = .02). Patients with inadequate health literacy were less likely than patients with adequate health literacy to achieve tight glycemic control (HbA1c ≤7.2%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-1.00; P = .05) and were more likely to have poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥9.5%; adjusted OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.73; P = .02) and to report having retinopathy (adjusted OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.19-4.57; P = .01).ConclusionsAmong primary care patients with type 2 diabetes, inadequate health literacy is independently associated with worse glycemic control and higher rates of retinopathy. Inadequate health literacy may contribute to the disproportionate burden of diabetes-related problems among disadvantaged populations. Efforts should focus on developing and evaluating interventions to improve diabetes outcomes among patients with inadequate health literacy.

1,636 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background Depression is common among patients with chronic medical illness. We explored the impact of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with diabetes on diabetes self-care, adherence to medication regimens, functioning, and health care costs. Methods We administered a questionnaire to 367 patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes from 2 health maintenance organization primary care clinics to obtain data on demographics, depressive symptoms, diabetes knowledge, functioning, and diabetes self-care. On the basis of automated data, we measured medical comorbidity, health care costs, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels, and oral hypoglycemic prescription refills. Using depressive symptom severity tertiles (low, medium, or high), we performed regression analyses to determine the impact of depressive symptoms on adherence to diabetes self-care and oral hypoglycemic regimens, HbA 1c levels, functional impairment, and health care costs. Results Compared with patients in the low-severity depression symptom tertile, those in the medium- and high-severity tertiles were significantly less adherent to dietary recommendations. Patients in the high-severity tertile were significantly distinct from those in the low-severity tertile by having a higher percentage of days in nonadherence to oral hypoglycemic regimens (15% vs 7%); poorer physical and mental functioning; greater probability of having any emergency department, primary care, specialty care, medical inpatient, and mental health costs; and among users of health care within categories, higher primary (51% higher), ambulatory (75% higher), and total health care costs (86% higher). Conclusions Depressive symptom severity is associated with poorer diet and medication regimen adherence, functional impairment, and higher health care costs in primary care diabetic patients. Further studies testing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of enhanced models of care of diabetic patients with depression are needed.

1,451 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The extent to which primary care physicians working in a public hospital assess patient recall and comprehension of new concepts during outpatient encounters was measured and the association between physicians' application of this interactive communication strategy and patients' glycemic control was examined.
Abstract: Background Patients recall or comprehend as little as half of what physicians convey during an outpatient encounter. To enhance recall, comprehension, and adherence, it is recommended that physicians elicit patients' comprehension of new concepts and tailor subsequent information, particularly for patients with low functional health literacy. It is not known how frequently physicians apply this interactive educational strategy, or whether it is associated with improved health outcomes. Methods We used direct observation to measure the extent to which primary care physicians working in a public hospital assess patient recall and comprehension of new concepts during outpatient encounters, using audiotapes of visits between 38 physicians and 74 English-speaking patients with diabetes mellitus and low functional health literacy. We then examined whether there was an association between physicians' application of this interactive communication strategy and patients' glycemic control using information from clinical and administrative databases. Results Physicians assessed recall and comprehension of any new concept in 12 (20%) of 61 visits and for 15 (12%) of 124 new concepts. Patients whose physicians assessed recall or comprehension were more likely to have hemoglobin A1clevels below the mean (≤8.6%) vs patients whose physicians did not (odds ratio, 8.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-74.9) (P= .02). After multivariate logistic regression, the 2 variables independently associated with good glycemic control were higher health literacy levels (odds ratio, 3.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-14.47) (P= .04) and physicians' application of the interactive communication strategy (odds ratio, 15.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-110.78) (P Conclusions Primary care physicians caring for patients with diabetes mellitus and low functional health literacy rarely assessed patient recall or comprehension of new concepts. Overlooking this step in communication reflects a missed opportunity that may have important clinical implications.

1,079 citations


"Multidisciplinary care: Experience ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This requires tailored, active, long-term support and regular follow up from health professionals (Schillinger et al. 2003)....

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