Myeloma: A malignant disorder of bone and soft tissue
TL;DR: Despite many efforts over the years and the large number of treatment agents introduced, it is apparent that the authors do not have sufficient ability or knowledge to control this very troublesome disorder.
Abstract: The purpose of this brief report is to review a large series of cases of myeloma, a highly malignant tumor. The disease was first described over 150 years ago, but not named myeloma until 1873. The lesion appears to be caused by the production of plasma cells in the bone marrow occasionally associated with amyloid. Patients present with pain in bones, principally spine, pelvis, ribs, calvarium and long bones. The sedimentation rate is elevated and marrow shows 10% plasma cells and the sedimentation rate is always elevated. There is no identified genetic cause and the disease is not familial. The disease has a highly malignant potential. We treated 181 mature adult patients with tumor in multiple sites. 63% were dead of disease at an average of 4.5 years after diagnosis. The use of some new drugs have been helpful, chiefly lalanlidomide or bortezomib. Radiation appears to be useful for some lesions and bisphosphonates sometimes help support the bone structure. Despite many efforts over the years and the large number of treatment agents introduced, it is apparent that we do not have sufficient ability or knowledge to control this very troublesome disorder.
TL;DR: Initial staging can be quantitatively related to followup using tumor cell mass changes calculated from changes in M‐component production, and should lead to improved study design and analysis in large clinical trials of therapy for multiple myeloma.
Abstract: The presenting clinical features of 71 patients with multiple myeloma were correlated with myeloma cell mass (myeloma cells X 10(12)/m2 of body surface area) determined from measurements of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-component) synthesis and metabolism. Bivariate correlation and multivariate regression analyses showed that myeloma cell mass could be accurately predicted from A) extent of bone lesions, B) hemoglobin level, C) serum calcium level, and D) M-component levels in serum and urine. Analyses of response to chemotherapy and survival indicated significant correlation with measured myeloma cell burden. The results were synthesized to produce a very reliable and useful clinical staging system with three tumor cell mass levels (Table 7). For clinical research purposes, multivariate regression equations were developed to predict optimally the exact myeloma cell mass. Thus, initial staging can be quantitatively related to followup using tumor cell mass changes calculated from changes in M-component production. Use of the clinical staging system sould provide better initial assessment and followup of individual patients, and should lead to improved study design and analysis in large clinical trials of therapy for multiple myeloma.
TL;DR: Monthly infusions of pamidronate provide significant protection against skeletal complications and improve the quality of life of patients with stage III multiple myeloma.
Abstract: Background Skeletal complications are a major clinical manifestation of multiple myeloma. These complications are caused by soluble factors that stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone. Bisphosphonates such as pamidronate inhibit osteoclastic activity and reduce bone resorption. Methods Patients with stage III multiple myeloma and at least one lytic lesion received either placebo or pamidronate (90 mg) as a four-hour intravenous infusion given every four weeks for nine cycles in addition to antimyeloma therapy. The patients were stratified according to whether they were receiving first-line (stratum 1) or second-line (stratum 2) antimyeloma chemotherapy at entry into the study. Skeletal events (pathologic fracture, irradiation of or surgery on bone, and spinal cord compression), hypercalcemia (symptoms or a serum calcium concentration >12 mg per deciliter [3.0 mmol per liter]), bone pain, analgesic-drug use, performance status, and quality of life were assessed monthly. Results Among 392 treated patients, th...
TL;DR: This study evaluated the dose–response relation for zoledronic acid, a new generation high potency bisphosphonate, given as a 5‐minute infusion in patients with malignant osteolytic disease.
Abstract: BACKGROUND This study evaluated the dose–response relation for zoledronic acid, a new generation high potency bisphosphonate, given as a 5-minute infusion in patients with malignant osteolytic disease. METHODS Two-hundred eighty patients with osteolytic lesions due to metastatic breast carcinoma or multiple myeloma were randomized to double-blind treatment with either 0.4, 2.0, or 4.0 mg of zoledronic acid or 90 mg pamidronate. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients receiving radiation to bone. Other skeletal-related events, bone mineral density (BMD), bone markers, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, pain and analgesic scores, and safety also were evaluated. RESULTS Zoledronic acid at doses of 2.0 and 4.0 mg and pamidronate at a dose of 90 mg each significantly reduced the need for radiation therapy to bone (P < 0.05) in contrast with 0.4 mg zoledronic acid, which did not. Skeletal-related events of any kind, pathologic fractures, and hypercalcemia also occurred less frequently in patients treated with 2.0 or 4.0 mg zoledronic acid or pamidronate than with 0.4 mg zoledronic acid. Increases in lumbar spine BMD (6.2–9.6%) and decreases in the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide (range, −37.1 to −60.8%) were observed for all treatment groups. Skeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and headache were the most commonly reported adverse events. Adverse events were similar in nature and frequency with zoledronic acid and pamidronate. CONCLUSIONS A 5-minute infusion of 2.0–4.0 mg zoledronic acid was at least as effective as a 2-hour 90-mg pamidronate infusion in treatment of osteolytic metastases. A 0.4-mg dose of zoledronic acid was significantly less effective. Both zoledronic acid and pamidronate were well tolerated. Cancer 2001;91:1191–200. © 2001 American Cancer Society.
TL;DR: Oncogenes dysregulated by primary IgH translocations in MM do not appear to confer an anti-apoptotic effect, but instead increase proliferation and/or inhibit differentiation.
Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant tumor of somatically mutated, isotype-switched plasma cells (PC), usually arises from a common benign PC tumor called Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS). MM progresses within the bone marrow, and then to an extramedullary stage from which MM cell lines are generated. The incidence of IgH translocations increases with the stage of disease: 50% in MGUS, 60–65% in intramedullarly MM, 70–80% in extramedullary MM, and >90% in MM cell lines. Primary, simple reciprocal IgH translocations, which are present in both MGUS and MM, involve many partners and provide an early immortalizing event. Four chromosomal partners appear to account for the majority of primary IgH translocations: 11q13 (cyclin D1), 6p21 (cyclin D3), 4p16 (FGFR3 and MMSET), and 16q23 (c-maf). They are mediated primarily by errors in IgH switch recombination and less often by errors in somatic hypermutation, with the former dissociating the intronic and 3′ enhancer(s), so that potential oncogenes can be dysregulated on each derivative chromosome (e.g., FGFR3 on der14 and MMSET on der4). Secondary translocations, which sometimes do not involve Ig loci, are more complex, and are not mediated by errors in B cell specific DNA modification mechanisms. They involve other chromosomal partners, notably 8q24 (c-myc), and are associated with tumor progression. Consistent with MM being the malignant counterpart of a long-lived PC, oncogenes dysregulated by primary IgH translocations in MM do not appear to confer an anti-apoptotic effect, but instead increase proliferation and/or inhibit differentiation. The fact that so many different primary transforming events give rise to tumors with the same phenotype suggests that there is only a single fate available for the transformed cell.
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