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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Performance Analysis of Ammonia Sensors based on Nanostructured PANI-DBSA Synthesised by Template Free Direct Doping Route using Surfactant and Indirect Doping Route

01 Dec 2019-Vol. 2019, pp 1-4
Abstract: Prolonged exposure of ammonia results in many potential health hazards for humans as it interacts immediately upon contact with available moisture in the eyes, skin, oral cavity, respiratory tract and particularly mucous surfaces, thereby, causes cellular destruction and tissue necrosis. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison between ammonia gas sensing, spectral, structural, and morphological properties of the dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI-DBSA) nanostructures synthesized using a template free direct route using surfactant dopants as structure directing agents and using indirect route. Two different samples of PANI-DBSA nanostructures have been prepared via template free direct route (Nanostructured DBSA doped PANI has been prepared by emulsion polymerization of aniline in the presence of DBSA) and indirect doping route (Nanostructured DBSA doped PANI has been prepared via chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer). Different characterizations revealed that the spectral, structural, morphological, and ammonia gas sensing properties of the synthesized PANI-DBSA nanostructures are highly dependent on the synthesis route. Thin film of nanostructured PANI-DBSA prepared using template free direct route exhibited better ammonia gas sensing response (7.97) as compared to thin film of nanostructured PANI-DBSA prepared using indirect doping (3.24) due to availability of large number of grain boundaries and higher doping levels.
Topics: Emulsion polymerization (50%)
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
07 Mar 2007-Sensors
Abstract: The gas sensors fabricated by using conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active layers have been reviewed. This review discusses the sensing mechanism and configurations of the sensors. The factors that affect the performances of the gas sensors are also addressed. The disadvantages of the sensors and a brief prospect in this research field are discussed at the end of the review.

1,199 citations


"Performance Analysis of Ammonia Sen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the recent past, conducting polymers have been widely used as sensing thin film for ammonia gas [1] – [4] which causes many potential health hazards for humans like rapid skin or eye irritation, olfactory fatigue, burning of the throat and nose, burning of respiratory tract, bronchiolar and alveolar edema, respiratory distress or failure due to airway destruction, [5] etc....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We propose a new type of ammonia sensor with polyaniline (electroconducting polymer) as the sensitive element. Such sensors are characterized by high sensitivity, wide range of measured concentrations (1–2000 ppm) and high stability of electrical parameters. The use of polyaniline ensures high chemical stability of the sensors in oxidizing ambients. A sensor design based on a silicon chip custom-packed into a linear plastic case is presented. The chip is provided with a system of heaters and thermometers to check the temperature regime of sensor operation. We have studied I – V curves, temperature, concentration and kinetic characteristics of the sensors, as well as their ageing. The possibility for thermoregeneration of the sensor parameters after long-term functioning in an ammonia ambient is emphasized.

249 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2008-Talanta
Abstract: This work details the fabrication and performance of a sensor for ammonia gas analysis which has been constructed via the inkjet-printed deposition of polyaniline nanoparticle films. The conducting films were assembled on interdigitated electrode arrays and characterised with respect to their layer thickness and thermal properties. The sensor was further combined with heater foils for operation at a range of temperatures. When operated in a conductimetric mode, the sensor was shown to exhibit temperature-dependent analytical performance to ammonia detection. At room temperature, the sensor responded rapidly to ammonia (t50 = 15 s). Sensor recovery time, response linearity and sensitivity were all significantly improved by operating the sensor at temperatures up to 80 °C. The sensor was found to have a stable logarithmic response to ammonia in the range of interest (1–100 ppm). The sensor was also insensitive to moisture in the range from 35 to 98% relative humidity. The response of the sensor to a range of common potential interferents was also studied.

192 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Thin films of tin oxide-intercalated polyaniline nanocomposite have been deposited at room temperature, through solution route technique. The as-grown films were studied for some of the useful physicochemical properties, making use of XRD, FTIR, SEM, etc. and optical methods. XRD studies showed peak broadening and the peak positions shift from standard values, indicating presence of tin oxide in nanoparticles form in the polyaniline (PANI) matrix. FTIR study shows presence of the Sn–O–Sn vibrational peak and characteristic vibrational peaks of PANI. Study of SEM micrograph revealed that the composite particles have irregular shape and size with micellar templates of PANI around them. AFM images show topographical features of the nanocomposite similar to SEM images but at higher resolution. Optical absorbance studies show shifting of the characteristics peaks for PANI, which may be due to presence of tin oxide in PANI matrix. On exposure to ammonia gas (100–500 ppm in air) at room temperature, it was found that the PANI film resistance increases, while that of the nanocomposite (PANI + SnO2) film decreases from the respective unexposed value. These changes on removal of ammonia gas are reversible in nature, and the composite films showed good sensitivity with relatively faster response/recovery time. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

187 citations


"Performance Analysis of Ammonia Sen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the recent past, conducting polymers have been widely used as sensing thin film for ammonia gas [1] – [4] which causes many potential health hazards for humans like rapid skin or eye irritation, olfactory fatigue, burning of the throat and nose, burning of respiratory tract, bronchiolar and alveolar edema, respiratory distress or failure due to airway destruction, [5] etc....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Conducting polymers are at the forefront of nanomaterial's research but the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation of functional nanostructures and control their electromagnetic (EM) properties are still unknown. Herein, we report for the first time a detailed correlation between acquired morphology, structural, spectral, electrical and EM properties of the polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures synthesized by a template free route using surfactant dopants as structure directing agents. Aniline has been emulsion polymerized in the presence of different sulfonic acids viz. dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, camphorsulfonic acid, ligninsulfonic acid & cardanolazophenylsulfonic acid and the formed PANIs have been designated as PDB, PCS, PLS and PCD, respectively. The SEM investigations revealed that the morphology is critically dependent on the nature of the dopant, while FTIR, XRD, EPR and UV-visible studies revealed that doping level follows the order PCD 99.999% of incident EM radiation) demonstrate the potential of these materials for making future microwave shields.

73 citations


"Performance Analysis of Ammonia Sen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, the electrical (gas sensing) properties of dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid doped Polyaniline (PANIDBSA) nanostructures are extremely sensitive toward oxidation states, dopant concentrations, and nanostructures surface morphology [8] – [9] which are highly dependent on PANIDBSA synthesis process....

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  • ...Increasing doping level causes variation of the relative intensity of the ~20° (I20°) and ~25° (I25°) peaks [9]....

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  • ...1 mol in 100 mL de-ionized water) under same conditions and for same duration as in the case of direct route approach [9] – [10]....

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  • ...Based on experimental results it is concluded that, under our experimental conditions, a micellar elongation procedure [9] dominated in case of PD-Direct due to presence of DBSA leading to the formation of nanorods structure, whereas unelongated growth [9] was more probable for PDindirect resulting in the formation of nanofibers....

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