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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/17439760.2019.1689421

Revisiting the Sustainable Happiness Model and Pie Chart: Can Happiness Be Successfully Pursued?

04 Mar 2021-The Journal of Positive Psychology (Routledge)-Vol. 16, Iss: 2, pp 145-154
Abstract: The Sustainable Happiness Model (SHM) has been influential in positive psychology and well-being science. However, the ‘pie chart’ aspect of the model has received valid critiques. In this article,...

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Topics: Happiness (68%), Pie chart (61%), Positive psychology (59%) ... show more
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26 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1590/1982-0275202037E200072
Abstract: Resumo A pandemia causada pela dispersao da COVID-19 no mundo obrigou muitos paises a adotarem o isolamento social como medida de contencao do virus. Pesquisas previas indicam que pessoas submetidas ao isolamento social desenvolvem sintomas psicologicos variados, principalmente relacionados ao estresse, ansiedade e depressao, decorrentes da privacao social e do confinamento. Este artigo objetiva apresentar pesquisas produzidas pela Psicologia Positiva e indicar como esses achados podem subsidiar intervencoes para a promocao de saude mental e bem-estar durante o isolamento social. Dentre os construtos descritos, destacam-se pesquisas sobre autocompaixao, resiliencia, criatividade, otimismo, esperanca, bem-estar subjetivo e praticas de meditacao mindfulness para lidar com os efeitos adversos do isolamento. Consideracoes e implicacoes dessas praticas sao discutidas em detalhes.

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22 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.24839/2325-7342.JN25.3.224
Abstract: Sleep quality has been well-researched and supported as a predictor of physical and mental health (Ohayon et al., 2017). In 2016, The National Sleep Foundation provided an evidence-based set of recommendations regarding indicators of good sleep quality. Across the 277 studies included in the review, shorter sleep onset latencies, fewer awakenings, and higher sleep efficiency were indicators of good sleep quality across the lifespan (Ohayon et al., 2017). In contrast, poor sleep quality has been linked to a myriad of adverse consequences including increased stress responsivity, cognitive, memory, and performance deficits, impairment in emotion regulation, and increases in negative emotions (Medic et al., 2017; O’Leary et al., 2016). Poor sleep quality is also linked to long-term physical health difficulties including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and weight-related issues (Medic et al., 2017). There is evidence that sleep disturbances and comorbid psychological and medical diagnoses have a cyclical influence such that sleep problems lead to greater decline in general and psychological health, which in turn worsens sleep problems (Kaplan & Harvey, 2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a psychological treatment comprised of sleep hygiene strategies including stimulus control, relaxation, and cognitive restructuring of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. CBT-I posits that maladaptive beliefs about sleep are critical targets in treatment (Kaplan & Harvey, 2014). A randomized control trial conducted by Eidelman et al. (2016) found that individuals who participated in CBT-I had a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and had reduced insomnia symptoms and impairment at both post-treatment and follow-up when compared to behavioral or cognitive therapy alone. A meta-analysis conducted by Geiger-Brown et al. (2015) found that CBT-I improved subjective sleep quality post-treatment, reduced sleep onset latency, improved total sleep time, and increased sleep efficiency among those with comorbid diagnoses, and treatment effects were stable at follow-up. ABSTRACT. Sleep quality is correlated with physical and mental health and is an important target for overall well-being. CBT-I is an evidence-based strategy to improve sleep quality; however, shortage of qualified providers; logistical issues such as cost, travel, and time; privacy concerns; and a desire to resolve symptoms on one’s own limit access to CBT-I. Compared to traditional face-to-face or web-based delivery of CBT-I, app-delivered CBT-I may be an efficacious alternative capitalizing on the portability, privacy, and accessibility of mobile phones. The present study examined the effectiveness of the CBT-I Coach for educating participants about the importance of healthy sleep practices and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and targeted sleep. The use of the CBT-I Coach resulted in significant improvements in sleep quality, dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep efficiency. This study supports the use of CBT-I Coach as an effective intervention for improving sleep quality.

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8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2020.01953
Abstract: Most people want to be happy and many look out for opportunities to achieve a more satisfying life. Following a happiness training is an option, but the effectiveness of such training is being questioned. In this research synthesis we assessed: (1) whether happiness training techniques add to the happiness of their users, (2) how much happiness training techniques add to happiness, (3) how long the effect of happiness training lasts, (4) what kinds of training techniques work best, and (5) what types of groups of people profit from taking happiness training. We took stock of the available research and found 61 reports of effect studies on training techniques, which together yielded 179 findings. These findings are available in an online "findings archive," the World Database of Happiness. Using links to this source allows us to condense information in tabular overviews, while providing the reader with access to much detail. Happiness training techniques seem to do what they are designed to do: 96% of the studies showed a gain in happiness post intervention and at follow-up, about half of the positive results were statistically significant. Studies with cross-sectional designs and studies that used control groups showed more mixed results. The average effect of happiness training was approximately 5% of the scale range. We conclude that taking a form of happiness training is advisable for individuals looking for a more satisfying life. Since happier workers tend to be more productive, organizations would be wise to provide such training techniques for their workforce.

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Topics: Happiness (74%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12144-020-01242-W
Pulkit Khanna1, Kamlesh Singh2Institutions (2)
08 Jan 2021-Current Psychology
Abstract: Stress and allied difficulties are pervasive among school students in present times. This concern is further magnified in the Indian context with the large represention of young people in the population and limited resources to match. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a classroom based stress management training and gratitude journaling intervention (Flinchbaugh et al., 2012) among Indian adolescents. The intervention curriculum was adapted to suit the study context. A total of 238 students (57% males) from Grades 7–9 participated in this study. Participants were recruited from two schools, and their age ranged from 11 to 14 years. In each participating school, students were randomised at the classroom level into three intervention groups (Stress Management Training, Gratitude Journaling, combination of both), and one control group. Using a pre-test – post-test design, intervention impact on measures of well-being, life satisfaction, perceived stress, meaning, and engagement in the classroom was evaluated. Results suggested limited effectiveness of stress management training and gratitude journaling among participants in the present context. Plausible explanations for these findings are discussed. The study emphasizes the need for customised interventions to obtain optimal outcomes among diverse populations.

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Topics: Gratitude (62%), Stress management (56%), Journaling file system (55%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Some positive psychologists claim that quantitative research leads to the most effective interventions for the intentional pursuit of happiness. A similar claim made in psychotherapy research resulted in failure; fifty years of experimental research has not improved psychotherapy outcomes. In this essay it is argued that the explosion in happiness studies of the last twenty years did has not improved effect sizes of happiness interventions. The supposed epistemological superiority of positive psychologists has not produced more effective happiness advice. This should not be taken as an encouragement to throw the baby out with the bathwater. If we follow current reasoning in psychotherapy research, we can conclude that positive psychological research can correct misguided or counterproductive happiness advice, but will not offer definitive answers. The individuals making his their own choices on the basis of a personal life philosophy count. A further conclusion is that happiness interventions should not just be about acquiring skills to correct the affective system in our brains, so that we are able to overcome our negativity bias or hedonic adaptation. Intervention should also be about following our emotional action tendencies; promoting doing to do more of what feels right to us and avoiding what causes pain.

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Topics: Happiness (70%), Positive psychology (59%), Psychological research (53%) ... show more

4 Citations


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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.68
Richard M. Ryan1, Edward L. DeciInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theo~ has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatednesswhich when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy. T he fullest representations of humanity show people to be curious, vital, and self-motivated. At their best, they are agentic and inspired, striving to learn; extend themselves; master new skills; and apply their talents responsibly. That most people show considerable effort, agency, and commitment in their lives appears, in fact, to be more normative than exceptional, suggesting some very positive and persistent features of human nature. Yet, it is also clear that the human spirit can be diminished or crushed and that individuals sometimes reject growth and responsibility. Regardless of social strata or cultural origin, examples of both children and adults who are apathetic, alienated, and irresponsible are abundant. Such non-optimal human functioning can be observed not only in our psychological clinics but also among the millions who, for hours a day, sit passively before their televisions, stare blankly from the back of their classrooms, or wait listlessly for the weekend as they go about their jobs. The persistent, proactive, and positive tendencies of human nature are clearly not invariantly apparent. The fact that human nature, phenotypically expressed, can be either active or passive, constructive or indolent, suggests more than mere dispositional differences and is a function of more than just biological endowments. It also bespeaks a wide range of reactions to social environments that is worthy of our most intense scientific investigation. Specifically, social contexts catalyze both within- and between-person differences in motivation and personal growth, resulting in people being more self-motivated, energized, and integrated in some situations, domains, and cultures than in others. Research on the conditions that foster versus undermine positive human potentials has both theoretical import and practical significance because it can contribute not only to formal knowledge of the causes of human behavior but also to the design of social environments that optimize people's development, performance, and well-being. Research guided by self-determination theory (SDT) has had an ongoing concern with precisely these

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Topics: Self-determination theory (58%), Human spirit (54%), Need theory (53%) ... show more

26,488 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

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18,785 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1207/S15327752JPA4901_13
Abstract: This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

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17,915 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness". A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWV (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect).

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Topics: Subjective well-being (68%), Happiness (56%), Life satisfaction (51%)

8,493 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.276
Abstract: W Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness" A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB E Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect) In 1967, Warner Wilson presented a broad review of subjective well-being (SWB) research entitled, "Correlates of Avowed Happiness" Based on the limited data available at that time, Wilson concluded that the happy person is a "young, healthy, welleducated, well-paid, extroverted, optimistic, worry-free, religious, married person with high self-esteem, job morale, modest aspirations, of either sex and of a wide range of intelligence" (p 294) In the three decades since Wilson's review, investigations into SWB have evolved Although researchers now know a great deal more about the correlates of SWB, they are less interested in simply describing the demographic characteristics that correlate with it Instead, they focus their effort on understanding the processes that underlie happiness This trend represents a greater recognition of the central role played by people's goals, coping efforts, and dispositions In this article, we review research on several major theoretical approaches to well-being and then indicate how these theories clarify the findings on demographic correlates of SWB Throughout the review we suggest four directions that researchers should pursue in the decades ahead These are by no means the only questions left to answer, but we believe they are the most interesting issues left to resolve First, the causal direction of the correlates of happiness must be examined through more sophisticated methodologies Although the causal priority of demographic factors such as marriage and income is intuitively appealing, it is by no means certain Second, researchers must focus greater attention on the interaction between internal factors (such as personality traits) and external circumstances As we shall see, demographic factors have surprisingly small effects on SWB, but these effects may depend on the personalities of those individuals being studied Thus, future research must take Person X Situation interactions into account Third, researchers must strive to understand the processes underlying adaptation Considerable adaptation to both good and bad circumstances often occurs, yet the processes responsible for these effects are poorly understood Research that examines how habituation, coping strategies, and changing goals influence adaptation will shed much light on the processes responsible for SWB Finally, theories must be refined to make specific predictions about how input variables differentially influence the components of SWB In the past, many researchers have treated SWB as a monolithic entity, but it is now clear that there are separable components that exhibit unique patterns of relations with different variables In each section of this article we discuss progress and opportunities in these four areas

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Topics: Subjective well-being (68%), Happiness (56%), Happiness economics (53%) ... show more

7,598 Citations


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