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Journal ArticleDOI

Technical Note: Static stress analysis of a composite bevel gear using a three-dimensional finite element method

01 Jan 1994-Computers & Structures (Pergamon Press, Inc.)-Vol. 51, Iss: 6, pp 771-783
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of two composite material bevel gears is compared with a carbon steel gear from a static strength and displacement point of view, and it is concluded that composite materials such as boron/epoxy can be very much thought of as a material for power transmission bevel gear.
About: This article is published in Computers & Structures.The article was published on 1994-01-01. It has received 13 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Bevel gear & Epoxy.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a formulation and solution technique using genetic algorithms (GA) for design optimization of composite leaf springs is presented, where the optimum dimensions of a composite leaf spring have been obtained, which contributes towards achieving the minimum weight with adequate strength and stiffness.

138 citations

01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, a single leaf with variable thickness and width for constant cross sectional area of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multileaf spring, was designed, fabricated (hand-lay up technique) and tested.
Abstract: The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel spring with fiberglass composite leaf spring due to high strength to weight ratio. Therefore; the aim of this paper is to present a low cost fabrication of complete mono composite leaf spring and mono composite leaf spring with bonded end joints. Also, general study on the analysis and design. A single leaf with variable thickness and width for constant cross sectional area of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multileaf spring, was designed, fabricated (hand-lay up technique) and tested. Computer algorithm using C-language has been used for the design of constant cross-section leaf spring. The results showed that an spring width decreases hyperbolically and thickness increases linearly from the spring eyes towards the axle seat. The finite element results using ANSYS software showing stresses and deflections were verified with analytical and experimental results. The design constraints were stresses (Tsai-Wu failure criterion) and displacement. Compared to the steel spring, the composite spring has stresses that are much lower, the natural frequency is higher and the spring weight is nearly 85 % lower with bonded end joint and with complete eye unit.

119 citations


Cites background from "Technical Note: Static stress analy..."

  • ...Vijayarangan [5] showed the introduction of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) made it possible to reduce the weight of a machine element with out any reduction of the load carrying capacity....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a single leaf with variable thickness and variable width for constant cross sectional area of different composite materials, with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multi leaf spring, was modeled and analyzed.
Abstract: In the present scenario, composites are widely used in most of the industries in place of steel, due to low weight to strength ratio. In automobile industry, one can think of replacing parts with composites. The aim of this paper is to suggest the best composite material for design and fabrication of complete mono composite leaf spring. A single leaf with variable thickness and variable width for constant cross sectional area of different composite materials, with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multi leaf spring, were modeled and analyzed. The finite element results using ANSYS software showing stresses and deflections were verified with analytical results. The design constraints were stresses and displacement. Compared to the steel spring, the composite spring has stresses and deflection that are much lower, and the spring weight is nearly 78% lower. Key words: Leaf spring, composite, steel spring.

22 citations


Cites background from "Technical Note: Static stress analy..."

  • ...Vijayarangan and Ganesan (1994) showed the introduction of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) which made it possible to reduce the weight of a machine element without any reduction of the load carrying capacity....

    [...]

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed to make the gears asymmetric with different pressure an- gles for each side of the tooth, which is a standard practice in sophisticated gear design for many years.
Abstract: is a machine element used to transmit motion and power between rotating shafts by means of progressive engagement of projections called teeth. Gears are classi- fied according to the relative position of the axes of the shaft, type of gearing, peripheral velocity of the gears and position of teeth on gear surface. Presently gears are suffered by backlash the amount by which the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of the engaging tooth on the pitch circles, undercut a condition in gen- erated gear teeth when any part of the fillet curve lies inside of a line drawn tangent to the working profile at its lowest point and interference is an important aspect of kinematics of gearing. When the gear tooth tries to dig below the base circle of mating gear then the gear tooth action shall be non conjugate and violate the fun- damental law of gearing this non conjugate action is called the interference . These defects can be eliminated by increasing the pressure angle, by increasing the addendum of mat- ing gear and another way of increasing the load capacity of transmissions is to modify the involute geometry. This has been a standard practice in sophisticated gear design for many years. The nomenclature describing these types of gear modifications can be quite confusing with reference to addendum modification or profile shift. An additional alteration that is very rarely used is to make the gears asymmetric with different pressure an- gles for each side of the tooth. An asymmetric spur gear drive means that larger and smaller pressure angles are applied for the driving and coast sides. The two profiles of a gear tooth are functionally different for most gear drives. The workload on one side of profile is significantly higher than the other Gears.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a hybrid gear made of fiber-reinforced polymeric composite material and steel is used to reduce the transmissibility of vibration from teeth to hub as well as the weight of a transmission gear-train.
Abstract: Hybrid gears made of fiber-reinforced polymeric composite material and steel are recently attracting electric vehicle designers' attention due to their possible advantages such as lightweight and reduced vibration transfer for automotive transmissions. In this study, polymeric composite material is placed in-between the steel teeth and a central hub region in the radial direction of the hybrid helical gear. The partial usage of polymeric composite material for the high torque gear is expected to reduce the transmissibility of vibration from teeth to hub as well as the weight of a transmission gear-train. Using the finite element method, optimization, and vibration tests, a composite hybrid helical gear satisfying strength and vibration characteristics is successfully developed in this study. The reduction in acceleration of the hybrid gear is observed by comparing to that of a 100 % steel gear. From a point of view in damping ratio, the composite hybrid gear can make reduction of vibration by 42.3 %. To secure the bonding strength between steel and composite parts, the design optimization for the complicated bulgy and hollow interface region is performed by considering complex dimensions.

9 citations

References
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Book
01 Jun 1970
TL;DR: In this paper, the fundamental principles of Mechanical Design are discussed. But they do not consider the use of the human body in the design process of mechanical design, and they focus on the design of materials.
Abstract: Fundamentals of Mechanical Design , Fundamentals of Mechanical Design , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

66 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a finite element formulation for the analysis of axisymmetric fiber reinforced laminated shells subjected to axismmetric load is presented, which includes arbitrary number of bonded layers each of which may have different thicknesses, orientation of elastic axes, and elastic properties.

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a static stress analysis of composite gears using a three-dimensional finite element approach is presented, and it is concluded that graphite material such as graphite/epoxy can be thought of as a material for power transmission gears.

23 citations

Book
01 Jun 1988

10 citations